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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
influence society and government
land, people, and technology
based on self-government or popular sovereignty
U.S. government at both levels—state and national
was the first government established in the free United States
Articles of Confederation
Established a loose alliance of states, or confederacy, under the so-called “league of friendship”
Articles of Confederation
Each state retained its own independence and sovereignty, with more power than the national government
Articles of Confederation
Problems with the Articles
No power to tax
No national army
No executive or judicial branches—no enforcement capability
Amendments to the Articles required a unanimous vote
Established a more powerful national government that allowed states to retain autonomous power
This was called federalism or sometimes dual sovereignty, where each level retained its own independence and powers
States conducted most of the day-to-day business of government
Road building and maintenance
Public health, pestilence control
Other federal systems
Canada, Mexico, Switzerland, Germany, Australia, etc
in the 1960s centered around the debate over federalism
Civil Rights movement
trends toward
nationalization and decentralization
Federalism is subject to
Supreme Court interpretation
States retain more power under
strict constructionism
At the time of this book’s writing, Court was under
Rehnquist, a strict constructionist
Federal government ruled that interfering with freedom of movement hampered
interstate commerce
Buses, planes, trains crossed state lines
Banking and credit
Supreme Court rejected commerce clause reasoning in some federal cases
Gun Free School Zone Act of 1990
1994 Violence Against Women Act
Some states made restrictive laws designed to
disenfranchise certain citizens
Literacy tests
Poll taxes
Moral character criteria
“reading tests” written in foreign languages
administer and control elections/voting with supervision by the national government
laws continued into the 1960s
Amendments expanded the voting franchise to women, eliminated the poll tax, lowered voting age to 18
19th, 24th, 26th
prohibited registrars from intimidation
Civil Rights Act of 1957
gave power to the federal Attorney General to prosecute uncooperative state governments
Also allowed “referees” to oversee elections
Civil Rights Act of 1960
did away with any discriminatory practices, unequal standards for registration
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Singled out districts where less than half the eligible voters actually voted
Outlawed literacy tests, other “testing” devices designed to disenfranchise
Gap between African-American and white voter registration continued to close
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
Accusations of disenfranchisement are occasionally made after a disputed election—always by the losing side—but legal safeguards exist to prevent this
recounts, voter records, census data, etc
Still some laws remain that can hamper the vote:
Registration deadlines
In person v. mail-in registration cards
This law allowed you to register to vote and renew registration when you got your driver’s license
Some states opposed as the federal government interference
Motor Voter Act
Official name: National Voter Registration Act (NVRA)
Constitution designed the national government to be stronger than the states
Implied powers clause (Art. I, Sect. 8)
Supremacy clause (Art. VI)
Judicial review (not specifically designated in the Constitution, but implied)
lead to individual social policies and social programs
Civic culture of the states
are “laboratories of democracies”
Each state has its own problems and must come up with its own way of dealing with them – in this case, poverty
South, Midwest: agricultural droughts
Northeast, urban areas: ghettos, overcrowding
West: Indian reservations
With different origins of poverty, different solutions are needed, and each state has a different________of poverty
government has a moral obligation to help the poor
you make your own choices; if you don’t like your wages or circumstances, take the steps to improve them
have the highest poverty rates
African- and Hispanic-Americans
Welfare population disproportionately
single women, children, elderly, and disabled
States have sought creative solutions to poverty and welfare
New Jersey: capped welfare benefits to discourage having more children
Privatization – some states use private accounts and/or contractors for welfare programs
These innovations are ways states experiment with finding cheap and effective solutions to social welfare policy
National action – Welfare Reform Act of 1996
Every family on welfare had to go to work within two years or lose benefits; allowed capped benefits
Block grants
Unfunded mandates
Americans with Disabilities Act