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82 Cards in this Set

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Declaration of Independence
1776. has no legal or governmental authority. it's a philosophy of govt. protects our unalienable rights.
Articles of Confederation
1777. first govt. first constituion. weak central govt. 1781- all 13 states consent to make it legal. 1787- we get rid of it.
Powers of Articles of Confederation Congress
1. declare war 2. make peace 3. ask states for soldiers to fight. they can say no. 4. ask states for money. no taxing. 5. regulate post office. 6. regulate affairs with indian tribes 7. coin money. not exclusively
James Madison
"father of the constitution". main writer of federalist papers. trying to get people to ratify the constitution. jay and hamilton also there. wrote the stuff down from constitutional convention. wrote bill of rights
Three fifths compromise
3 of every 5 slaves will be treated as people for representation in house of reps
republic
govt in which citizens elect officials to govt
democracy
govt in which the people make all the laws and decisions
strict construction
interpretation of constitution. limits powers of govt.
loose construction
interpretation of constitution. increases power of govt
supreme law of the land
nobody or no other laws can violate constitution. all laws must be consistent with it.
bill of rights
list of rights that protect you from your own govt.
United States Constitution
shares power between central govt and state/local units. compromise. bicameral congress. 9/13 to ratify the new constitution for it to pass
federalism
shares power between central govt and state/local units. roughly equally shared
great/connecticut compromise
house of reps based on population. senate- 2 per state.
checks and balances
we overlap powers to make sure they check each others pwoers so no one abuses their power.
separation of powers
divide power between different branches so all power isn't in one section
amendment
addition to constitution. congress votes by a 2/3 vote. 3/4 of state legislatures must agree.
Annapolis Conference
1786. in maryland. 5 states decide they want to modify the articles of confederation. realize 5 states isn't enough. decide to meet next year in philly
Shay's Rebellion
massachusettes farmers- led by shays. thought they were getting taxed too much. almost overthrew MA govt. washington and hamilton wanted to fix this- wanted to increase power of central govt.
Whiskey Rebellion
put down by an army. western PA farmers who use whiskey as their currency. similar to shays rebellion- but put down before it begins.
Senate
two per state. six year terms. 1/3 of them rotate every 2 years. don't want to replace them all at same time. chosen by population.
House of Representatives
based on population. 2 year terms. one rep for every 600,000. 435 reps since 1962.
Expressed, Enumerated, Delegated Powers
Article I Section 8 Clauses 1-17. congress can do only those things mentioned in that section.
Powers of Congress
1. can coin money.
2. can tax- sales, tariff (imported goods), income
3. interstate commerce- congress can regulate commerce among the states.
4. declare war. war powers act (congress must approve of a war started by the pres within 60 days. if they dont approve, pres has 30 days to remove troops.
forbidden powers
powers fobidden in the constitution
Implied powers
how it is interpreted (loose or strict construction). "necessary and proper" clause.
House Majority leader
member of majority party. assitsts the speaker of the house. helps to make sure that on a bill, all Republicans vote the same way. (Tom Delay)
Senate Majority Leader
more power. controls voting of majority party. dominate person in senate. (Bill Frist)
House/Senate minority leader
same as majority leader for the minority party. (Nancy Pelosi- house) (Tom Dashle- senate)
"necessary and proper" clause
article 1 section 8 clause 18. if it is necessary to back up an expressed power delegated to congress in article 1 section 8 clauses 1-17.
president pro tem (senate)
temporary. fills in for vice pres. 4th in line to president.
reapportionment
the process of reassigning representation based on pepulation after every census
rules committee
governs the way its convention is run
session of congress
period of time which a legislature meets to conduct business
filibuster
a method of defeating a bill in which a senator talks until a majority either abandons the bill or agrees to modify it
gerrymandering
to draw a district's boundaries to gain an advantage in elections
party whip
people that help whip their party into shape
quorum call
the minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
speaker of the house
single most powerful person in house. moderates debates. the majority party will get to pick the speaker. (Dennis Hachtert)- republican. 3rd in line to president.
conference committee
a temporary joint committee set up when the house and the senate have passed different versions of the same bill
joint resolution
when signed by pres and house and senate pass it- can be a law.
impeachment
pres, or someone he appoints. accuse them in court. brought up on charges. doesnt mean that they will be convicted. house of reps decide to impeach with a majority vote (clinton and johnson). to convict and kick someone out of office- senate muss pass a 2/3 vote.
veto
pres turns down a bill presented by congress. congress can override a veto with 2/3 vote.
pocket veto
occurs in last ten days of congressional session. puts bill in his pocket and "forgets" about it. bill is dead once congress goes out of session. if more than 10 days and pres doesnt touch it, it is automatically passed- so his name isnt on it.
concurrent resolution
could never be a law. passed by house and senate but pres does not sign it.
executive session
private discussion
voice vote
everyone says ye or ne at the same time. whichever is louder- wins. if its close- division of the house- each person will be asked how they vote. speaker of the house decides which is louder.
lobbyist
citizen. not congressman. trying to convince congressman to vote or not vote for a certain bill. paid professionals. special interest. must register.
private bill
deals with a specific person, place, or group of people. not everyone
public bill
everyone can be affected (paving of a highway)
rider
unrelated thing that is added on to the end of the bill. an amendment. helps to get more votes for the bill
subcommittee
subdivision of a standing committee
standing committee
permanent committee. specifies and deals with particular issues. acts as a funnel/clearinghouse for bills.
special committee
temporary committee (9/11 committee). select committee.
bill
a proposed law
cabinet
secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top officials that help the president make decisions and policy
presidential succession
order that people fill in for the vacant pres. if pres and vice pres die at same time:
1. speaker of the house
2. senate pro tem
3. cabinet members in order their positions were created (1st- secretary of state. 15th- homeland security)
executive privilege
not in constitution. right of pres and his workers to refuse to testify before court or congress because it is secret info that shouldn't be shared with entire country. (Nixon and watergate)
pardons
do not serve jail sentence. pres can grant this. record could be erased. pres does not have to give a reason
civil service/federal bureaucracy
office workers. get their jobs by passing a test. keep government going and running. not appointed by pres. can't be fired- lifetime employment. (post office worker)
electoral college
electors equal number of representatives plus senators. (3 from DC- same as smallest state). vote on dec 15. must get 270 votes to win election. every elector gets 2 votes (1 for pres and 1 for vice pres). if no majority- goes to house. for vice pres- goes to senate. plurality gets all votes for that state.
treaty
a formal agreement between the govts of two or more countries. need a 2/3 vote of senate
executive order/agreement
not in constitution. supposed to let the pres fill the blank spaces of a law.
commander in chief
pres power. he is commander in chief of armed forces. top general of all soldiers. not military general.
presidential appointments
pres can appoint people to top executive positions. (cabinet, judges, ambassadors) with approval of a simple majority of senate. can fire them if he wants- but not judges.
patronage
the practice of granting favors to reward party loyalty
executive office of the president
congress can create other jobs for the pres to appoint people without senate confirmation. additional people that help pres run govt.
petit jury
a trial jury. usually 6-12 people. weighs the evidence presented at a trial and renders a verdict
judicial review
power of supreme court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national govts unconstitutional
defense attorney
attorney that represents the person against whom a civil or criminal suit is brought in court
double jeopardy
retrial of a person who was acquitted in a previous trial for the same crime
statue
a law written by a legislative branch
Marbury vs. Madison
secured for the court the power to review acts of congress- the power of judicial review.
grand jury
group that hears charges against a suspect and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trail
bail
deposit. makes you free prior to trail
appellate jurisdiction
authority held by a court to hear a case that is appealed from lower court
concurrent jurisdiction
authority shared by both federal and state courts
original jurisdiction
the authority of a trail court to be first to hear a case
court of appeals
hears appeals from the board of veterans' appeals in the department of veteran affiars. deals with veterans' claims for benefits and other veterans' problems
misdemeanor
a minor crime that is usually punished by a fine or jail sentence of less than one year
felony
major crime
writ of certiorari
an order from the supreme court to a lower court to send up the records on a case for review