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51 Cards in this Set

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Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
bill of attainer
bill of attainder A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial.
civil liberties
civil liberties The personal rights and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation.
civil liberties
civil liberties The personal rights and freedoms that the federal government cannot abridge by law, constitution, or judicial interpretation.
civil rights
civil rights Refers to the positive acts governments take to protect individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals based on categories such as race, sex, national origin, age, or sexual orientation.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Closed Primary
Closed primary A primary election in which only a party’s registered voters are eligible to vote.
concurrent powers
concurrent powers Powers shared by the national and state governments.
conference committe
conference committee Joint committee created to iron out differences between Senate and House versions of a specific piece of legislation
Contract with America
Contract with America Campaign pledge signed by most Republican candidates in 1994 to guide their legislative agenda.
Cooperative Federalism
cooperative federalism A term used to characterize the relationship between the national and state governments that began with the New Deal.
Democracy
Democracy a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through their elected representatives
Direct Incitement Test
direct incitement test The advocacy of illegal action is protected by the First Amendment unless imminent action is intended and likely to occur.
Discharage Petition
discharge petition Petition that gives a majority of the House of Representatives the authority to bring an issue to the floor in the face of committee inaction.
Dual Federalism
dual federalism The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement.
Due Process Clause
due process clause Clause contained in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. Over the years, it has been construed to guarantee to individuals a variety of rights ranging from economic liberty to criminal procedural rights to protection from arbitrary governmental action.
Ex Post Facto Law
ex post facto law Law passed after the fact, thereby making previously legal activity illegal and subject to current penalty; prohibited by the U.S. Constitution.
Exclusionary Rule
exclusionary rule Judicially created rule that prohibits police from using illegally seized evidence at trial.
Executive Agreement
executive agreement A formal agreement entered into by the executive branches of different countries. These agreements do not require the advice and consent of the Senate.
Executive Office of the President
Executive Office of the President (EOP) Establishment created in 1939 to help the president oversee the bureaucracy.
Exit Polls
Exit polls polls conducted at selected polling places on election day.
Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve Board A seven-member board that sets member banks’ reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions
Federalism
federalism The philosophy that describes the governmental system created by the Framers; see also federal system.
Fourteenth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment One of the three Civil War amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of laws to all U.S. citizens.
Free Exercise Clause
free exercise clause The second clause of the First Amendment. It prohibits the U.S. government from interfering with a citizen’s right to practice his or her religion.
Free Rider Problem
Free rider problem potential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing to the effort.
Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering the legislative process through which the majority party in each statehouse tries to assure that the maximum number of representatives from its political party can be elected to congress through the redrawing of legislative districts.
Great Compromise
Great Compromise A decision made during the Philadelphia Convention to give each state the same number of representatives in the Senate while establishing representation in the House on population.
Implied Powers
implied powers Powers given to the national government through the inference from enumerated powers.
Incorporation Doctorine
incorporation doctrine Principle in which the Supreme Court has held that most, but not all, of the specific guarantees in the Bill of Rights limit state and local governments by making those guarantees applicable to the states through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Inoculation Ads
Inoculation ads advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched.
Interest Group
Interest group an organized group that tries to influence public policy
Iron Triangles
Iron triangles the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among an agency, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow laws Laws enacted by Southern states that discriminated against blacks by creating "whites only" schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.
Laisez-Faire
Laisez-faire a French term literally meaning “to allow to do, to leave alone.” It is an hands-off governmental policy that is based on the belief that governmental regulation of the economy is wrong.
Legislative Veto
legislative veto A procedure by which one or both houses of Congress can disallow an act of the president or executive agency by a simple majority vote; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Natural Law
Natural law a doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason.
New Deal
New Deal the program of “Relief, Recovery, Reform” begun by President FDR in 1933 designed to bring the US out of the Great Depression
Oligarchy
Oligarchy a form of government in which the right to participate is always conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement.
Political Action Committee
Political action committee(PAC) federally mandated, officially registered fund-raising committee that represents interest groups in the political process.
Political Ideology
Political ideology an individual’s coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government
Preemption
preemption A concept derived from the Constitution’s supremacy clause that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain areas.
Prior Restraint
prior restraint Judicial doctrine stating that the government cannot prohibit speech or publication before the fact.
Progressive Movement
Progressive Movement Advocates measures to destroy political machines and instead have direct participation by voters in the nomination of candidates and the establishment of public policy.
Push Polls
Push polls “polls” taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate.
Rule of Four
Rule of Four at least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it is heard
Strict Scrutiny
strict scrutiny A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice.
Symbolic Speech
symbolic speech Symbols, signs, and other methods of expression generally also considered to be protected by the First Amendment.
Tenth Amendment
Tenth Amendment Final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of American federalism in stating “The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
Tracking Polls
Tracking polls continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise or fall in support
Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan The first general plan for the Constitution, proposed by James Madison. Its key points were a bicameral legislature, an executive chosen by the legislature, and a judiciary also named by the legislature.