Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/100

Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What did Chavez advocate for?
economic equality for the migrant farm laborers
When did the UFW finally organize into 60,000 grape-growing industry field workers?
1970
What does the UFW stand for?
United Farm Workers
When did Cesar Chavez die?
1993
Where is the Hispanic population highly concentrated?
Los Angeles; New York City; Miami
Texas; New York; Florida; California
What state has the highest Hispanic population?
California - 11 million Hispanics
What is the ratio for Hispanics living in California?
1 out 3 Americans living in California is Hispanic.
T or F
Black and Hispanic populations in the U.S. are roughly equal.
True
T or F
The number of democracies is declining world-wide.
False
Who wrote "Democracy in America" in 1835
Alexis de Tocqueville
What is the term for a government by the people, either directly or through elected representative; rule by the ruled?
Democracy
What is the central idea of democracy?
Key political powers are placed in the hands of the people.
What is the term for a proposed policy measure submitted for direct popular vote?
Referendum (Referenda is plural for many)
What is the term for a government that stands apart from the people, oppressing citizens by depriving them of their basic freedom to speak, associate, write, and participate in political life without fear of punishment?
Authoritarian Regime.
What is the term for a government that provides for democratic, multi-party rule but notable deficiencies remain?
Emerging Democracy
What is the term for a government that includes direct elections of at least one branch of legislature, but characterized by authoriatrian rule with leaders elected by referendum or overwhelming majorities?
Limited Democracy
What is the term for a government that uses military or other authoritarian rule, with no elections or merely nominal ones?
Authoritarian
What is the term for a government that is based on hereditary rule, with no elected legislative body?
Monarch
What is the term for a government that is based on hereditary rule, but with an elected parliament with some power?
Monarch/Limited Democracy
What is the term for a government that has a Supreme leadership based on religious criteria, even if elections and some democracy coexist?
Theocracy
What is the term for a government that is moving from a military rule to civilian rule, as in Nigeria; or democratic practices suspended by seizure of power, as in Pakistan; or a transition government in place but without full control of territory, as in Somalia
Transitional government
T or F
There are countries that have no functioning central government.
True, as in Afghanistan up until the U.S. invastion.
List examples of democracies:
1. Bangladesh
2. Senegal
3. Turkey
4. Sierra Leone
5. Suriname
List examples of emerging democracies:
1. Albania
2. Gambia
3. Indonesia
4. Lebanon
5. Niger
List examples of limited democracies:
1. Algeria
2. Chad
3. Tunisia
4. Yemen
List examples of authoritarian governments:
Iran
Libya
Syria
List examples of monarchies:
Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates
List examples of monarchies with limited democarcies:
1. Jordan
2. Kuwait
3. Malaysia
4. Morocco
List an example of a country whose government is a theocracy:
1. Iran
List an example of a transitional government:
1. Nigeria
2. Pakistan
3. Somalia
4. Sudan
According to the 2001-2002 Freedom in the World Study, how many countries were rated "Free"?
86 countries
According to the Freedom House study of 2001-2002, how many of the world's population was considered to be living in countries rated free?
2.54 Billion people
What type of democracy assumes that people can govern themselves?
Direct Democracy
What type of democracy describes when voters designate a relatively small number of people to represent their interests; those representatives then meet in a legislative body and make decision on behalf of the entire citizenry?
Indirect Democracy
What were the political systems of ancient Athens and other Greek city-states considered to be:
Elite based, direct democracies.
Which type of democracy, Ancient Greek or Ancient Rome, is considered to be closer to the structures we have become in the U.S.?
Ancient Rome
Describe the type of democracy of Ancient Rome?
Indirect, representative democracy
Cite an example of the closest American approximation of direct democracy:
Town Meetings in New England
What are the 2 indispensable feature of effective democracy?
1. Equality
2. Majority Rule
What is the term that describes when all particpants in the government have equal access to the decision-making process, equal opportunity to influence the decisions made, and equal responsibility for those decisions?
Equality
What is the central premise to the Declaration of Independence?
"All men are created equal"
What is the description of a government process where more than half of the voters agree on an issue, the entire group accepts the decision, even those in the minority who voted against it?
Majority Rule
What lies at the heart of the democratic ideal?
Openness to others' opinions.
What type of democracy works well for small, homogenous groups of people?
Direct democracy
Cite one form of direct democracy still in use in some states?
Statewide balloting used in California and Oregon
What term describes a democracy where voters select representatives to make the decision of government for them?
Representative Democracy
Explain how citizens in a representative democracy still retain the ultimate decision-making power?
They can elect or eject their representatives.
Why did the framers of the Const. choose to go with a representative democracy?
They were afraid of a government ruled by a mob (mob rule)
What is a republic?
a system of government that allows indirect representation of the popular will.
What type of government results in representatives being at least one step away from the governed?
Republic
T or F
Originally the U.S. Senate members were selected by the state legislatures?
True
T or F
The framers of the Const. called for direct popular elections for the presidency.
False
True or False
Originally the framers of the Const. called for selection of the members of the Supreme Ct to be chosen by a directly elected president and confirmed by an indirectly elected Senate?
False. The president remains today indirectly elected. However, the Senate is today directly elected.
What are the 2 Greek words that serve as the originators of the word "democracy."?
Demos - Kratia: rule by the people
In Ancient Greece, what was the Athenian government organized around?
Their Assembly (Ekklesia)
How often did the Ekklesai meet?
40 times a year
Who were the members of the Ekklesia?
natural born, adult males
What provided the world's first model of what a democratic policital system might lo0k like?
Athens city-state
What were the 2 main drawbacks or limitations of the Athenian democracy?
1. Despite its small size in relation to today's governments, it required face to face political discussion and decision making; an
2. Highly exclusive - women, slaves, immigrants were barred despite being the majority of residents
What phrase in the Constitution did Jefferson borrow from Athenian democracy?
"just power" are derived "from the consent of the governed."
What were Madison's objections to Athenian type of democracy?
1. inherently unstable
2. prone to self-destruction
T or F
Athenian democracy was long-lived?
False.
List the 7 core values of American democracy:
1. freedom
2. equality
3. order
4. stability
5. majority rule
6. protection of minority rights
7. participation
What concept reflects that no individual should be within the power or under the control of another?
Freedom
What is the basic premise for a "negative freedom"
Freedom from-
Ex.freedom from government intervention
such as:
1. a freedom of speech
2. a freedom to assembly
3. a freedom to worship freely
What is the basic premise for a "positive freedom"?
Freedom to:
Ex. Freedom to exercise certain rights such as the
1. right to vote
2. right to legal counsel
3. right to equal protection under the law.
What type of freedom is reflected in the quote by Sup Ct. Justice Douglas, "right to be left alone."
Negative Freedom
What type of freedom, negative or positve, was defended when the U.S. government intervened in the South to uphold minority rights?
Postive freedom
What is the goal of equality of opportunity?
the main idea that "people should have equal rights and opportunities to develop their talents."
Which type of equality was Chavez striving for?
Equality of Opportunity
Describe the concept of "equality of result."
the idea that all forms of inequality including economic disparities should be eradicated.
What is the concept of a redistribution of goods, services,and income, taking from those who have more and giving to those who have less?
Equality of Result
T or F
If your view of freedom is freedom from government intervention, equality of any kind would be an extremely difficult goal to achieve.
True
Every society, to be successful must maintain _______________ and provide __________________ , so that their citizens can go about their business in a secure and predictable manner
1. order
2. social stability
Cite one example of a more obvious control that government places upon us to prevent social disorder:
mandatory drivers' licenses in order to drive a motor vehicle
T or F
Democracy is always static.
False. It is dynamic
Who stated that the, "sacred principle that through the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable."
Thomas Jefferson at his inaugural address in 1801
What is the term used to describe when those in minority band together into groups based on particular interests and seek to influence policy by allying with other groups?
Pluralism
T or F
In a system of democratic pluralism, maintaining a cohesive majority becomes less and less difficult.
False. It becomes more and more difficult
What is the term used to define the right to vote that extends to all adults?
universal suffrage
Who could vote in 1787 in the U.S.?
free, white, land-owning males over the age of 21.
Which 2 Const. Amendments eliminated slavery and involuntary servitude and gave the freed African Americans the right to vote?
13th and 15th Amendments
Which Const. Amendment gave the people the right to vote for their senators?
17th Amendment
Which Const. Amendment gave women the right to vote?
19th Amendment
Which Const. Amendment gave residents of the District of Columbia residential electoral college votes?
23rd Amendment
Which Const. Amendment ended the practice of charging people a "poll tax" before they could vote?
24th Amendment
Which Const. Amendment lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18 years old
26th Amendment
List institutions that are instrumental in the preservation of democracy:
1. free elections
2. competitive political parties
3. free press
4. interest groups
5. independent judiciary
6. civilian control of the military
7. civilian committment to the rule of law
8. set of democratic ideals
List the 5 main elements of a healthy democracy:
1. System of popular perception
2. Committment to preserve freedom and equality to all.
3. Independent jury
4. Civilian military and the police
5. Cultural committment to democratic ideals among all levels of society
What institution most clearly allow people to influence government?
Elections
How many people voted in the 2000 Presidential election?
100 million people
What is the term used to describe a group of like-minded members of the population to join together and magnify their individual voices into a focus for government action?
Political party
What term is used to describe groups that allow citizens to meet, organize, plan strategy, and lobby government for action?
Interest Groups
What is the term used to describe the citizens'right that government stay out of their personal lives?
an inherent RIGHT TO PRIVACY
What is the most widely used example of a committment by the citizenry to preserve freedom and equality for all using an open exchange of information?
A FREE PRESS
What tool do totalitarian governments use to maintain total authority over all its citizens?
Suppressing open communications as to maintain an iron grip over all minds of its populace.
What is central to maintaining the rule of law, protecting both the minorities and majority's citizen's rights?
INDEPENDENT JUDICIARY
What feature about the Supreme Court makes it the unique final interpreter of the Constitution in the U.S.?
Judicial Review
Who has the real power in dictatorships?
The group that controls the military and the police.
What is the theory that states democracy can be achieved through the competition of groups?
Pluralism