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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three main features of a passive margin in order from land outward?
Continental Shelf
Continental Slope
Continental Rise
What are the three provinces of the ocean floor?
Continental Margins
Deep-Ocean Basins
Mid-Ocean Ridges
What is indicated by point 'A'?
Continental Shelf
What are the two types of Continental Margins?
Active Margin
Passive Margin
Which margin lacks major tectonic activity?
Passive Margin
What is an example of a passive margin?
East coast US
What is indicated by point 'B'?
Continental Slope
Which continental margin is associated with lithospheric plate boundaries?
Active Margins
What kind of margin is caused by continued sea floor spreading
Passive Margin
What is indicated by point 'C'?
Continental Rise
What are the two types of fault zones that form active margins?
Convergent
Transform
What is indicated by point 'D'?
Abyssal Plain
Which active margin type has linear islands along plate boundaries?
Transform Active Margins
Continental arc onshore is a sign of what kind of active margin?
Convergent
Def: "gently sloping depositional surface extending from the low-water line to a marked increase in slope around the margin of a continent.
Continental Shelf
Def: "depth at which the gentle slope of the continental shelf steepens appreciably; the boundary between the continental shelf and continental rise."
Shelf Break
Def: "relatively steeply sloping surface lying seaward of the continental shelf." - beyond shelf break
Continental Slope
Def: "steep v-shaped canyon cut into the continental shelf or slope.
Submarine Canyons
Def: "underwater avalanches of muddy water mixed with sediment that move down the continental slope and are responsible for carving submarine canyons."
Turbidity Currents
Def: "gently sloping depositional surface at the base of the continental slope."
Continental Rise
What is the transition zone between the continental margin and the deep ocean floor?
Continental Rise
Def: "stratification in which each layer displays a decrease in grain size from bottom to top"
Graded Bedding
Def: "sediment or rock formed from sediment deposited by turbidity currents and characterized by graded bedding" - stacking
Turbidite Deposits
Def: "large fan-shaped deposit commonly found on the continental rise at the mouth of submarine canyons; particularly well developed seaward of such sediment laden rivers as the Amazon, Indus, or Ganges-Brahmaputra"
Deep-sea fan, submarine fans
What are the features of Deep-Ocean Basins?
Abyssal Plains
Volcanic Peaks
Flood Basins
Ocean Trenches
Back-arc Spreading Centers
Def: "deep linear scars in the ocean floor, caused by the collision of two plates along convergent plate margins"
Ocean Trench
Def: "arc-shaped row of active volcanoes directly above a subduction zone. Can occur as a row of islands (island arc) or mountains on land (continental arc)."
Volcanic Arc
How deep is the Mariana Trench and what ocean is it in?
11.0km
Pacific
How deep is the Kuril Trench and what ocean is it in?
10.5km
Pacific
How deep is the Philippine Trench and what ocean is it in?
10.5km
Pacific
How deep is the Kermadec-Tonga Trench and what ocean is it in?
10.0
Pacific
Def: "spreading centers behind island arcs that result from the tensional stresses created by the seaward migration of the associated oceanic trench."
Back-arc Spreading Centers
What occurs at spreading centers and creates underwater mountain ranges?
MOR (Mid-Ocean Ridges)
Which hydrothermal vents are clear and less than 30 degrees Celcius?
Warm-water vents
Which hydrothermal vents release barium sulfide and what is their temperature range?
White Smokers
30-350 degrees C
Which hydrothermal vents release metal sulfides and what is their temperature range?
Black Smokers
> 350 degrees C
Where are hydrothermal vents usually located?
Near the axis of spreading along MORs
How do hydrothermal vents contribute to deep-ocean life?
Chemosynthesis
Which zone is seismically inactive, not part of a plate boundary and beyond the offset segments of the MOR?
Fracture Zone
Which zone is seismically active and between the offset segments of the MOR?
Transform Fault
How do scientists collect information about ht edepth and shape of the sea floor?
Echo Sounders and Sattelite
What is the difference between a passive and an active continental margin?
Active margins are along convergent and tranform zones.
How are submarine canyons formed?
Turbidity currents
Where are the deepest areas of the ocean?
Deep-ocean trenches
What kinds fo features are found at the mid-ocean ridge?
thermal vents
What are differences between transform faults and fracture zones?
Tranform faults are between fractures zones.
What is produced by sounds that penetrate beneath the sea floor and reflect off the boundaries between different rock sedimetn layers?
Seismic Reflection Profiles
What curve shows the relationship between the height of the land and the depth of the oceans?
Hypsographic Curve.
Which type of continental margin lacks a plate boundary?
Passive Margin
Deep-ocean trenches and volcanic archs are a result of what kind of plate boundary?
Convergent
When hot basaltic lava spills on to the sea floor, what is formed?
pillow basalts