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145 Cards in this Set

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Not being involved or thinking about the music - background music such as in the grocery store
sensual listening
Thinking some about the music - what it's about, the story it tells, how it makes you feel
expressive listening
Concentrating on the music - focusing on melody, rhythm, etc.
musical listening
Rarely contains multiple levels of musical activity and doesn't require active listening. What you hear the first time is what you get.
popular music
Requires active listening
art music
a gradual decrease in the volume of sound
diminuendo
a musical idea that is repeated over and over again
ostinato
the art of assigning to the various instruments the various melodies, accompaniments, and counterpoints of a musical composition
orchestration
two or more voices or instrumental parts singing or playing the same pitch
unison
a group of composers whose purpose was to write russian music free of "western" european influence
the russian five (kuchka)
the speed of beats in music
tempo
the various levels of loud and soft at which sounds are produced in a musical composition
dynamics
any device that muffles the sound of a musical instrument
mute
very soft
pianissimo
an extra composition performed at the end of a concert
encore
very loud
fortissimo
Did Pictures at an Exhibition (_ _ _ _)
Modest Musorgsky (1874)
inspired Modest Musorgsky
Hartmann
___ pictures served as the basis for the composition with each movement recreating sound in the visual images of hartmann's drawings and paintings
10
organization of time in music
rhythm
an even pulse that divides the passing of time into equal segments
beat
produced by the gathering of beats into regular beats
meter
two beats per measure
duple meter
three beats per measure
triple meter
four beats per measure
quadruple meter
combination of duple and triple meter
complex meter
six beats per meter
sextuple meter (compound meter)
doesn't have a regular recurring pattern of beats
nonmetrical
two numbers, one on top of the other, placed at the beginning of the music to tell how beats are grouped
time signature
musical notation
score
stronger/weaker beat
downbeat/upbeat
doesn't start with a downbeat
pickup (anarcrusis)
places the accent on either a weak beat or between beats
syncopation
speed at which beats occur
tempo
mechanical device used by performers to keep a steady tempo
metronome
slow tempo
grave
largo
lento
adagio
moderate tempo
andante
andantino
moderato
allegretto
fast tempo
allegretto
allegro
molto allegro
vivace
vivo
presto
prestissimo
the tempo is "robbed", or constantly slowing and speeding up
rubato
tells a performer to return to the original tempo
a tempo
in musical notation, a tempo mark indicating a slowing down of the tempo
ritardando (rit.)
gradually slowing (often combined w/ getting louder dynamically)
rallentando
a tempo mark indicating "getting faster"
accelerando
in musical notation, a numerical shorthand that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note
fermata
relative position, high or low, of a musical sound
pitch
sound with a definite, consistent pitch
tone
distance between any two pitches on a musical scale
interval
the interval comprising the first and eighth tones of the major and minor diatonic scale
octave
smallest musical interval in western major or minor scale; distance between two adjacent piano keys
half step
predominant interval in the western major and minor scale; interval made of two half steps
whole step
organization of music around the tonic
tonality
central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate
tonic
tonal center built on a tonic note and making us e of a scale
key
preplaced sharps or flats
key signature
arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern
scale
scale that only uses the seven notes of the major or minor scale
diatonic
a seven note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps; 1-1-.5-1-1-1-.5
major scale
a seven note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps; 1-.5-1-1-.5-1-1
minor scale
uses all 12 notes in the octave
chromatic
a change from minor to major or from major to minor
mode
melodic motion that proceeds primarily by steps and without leaps
conjunct motion
melodic motion that moves primarily by leaps rather than by steps
disjunct motion
in musical notation, an articulation mark, indicating that the notes are to be smoothly connected
legato articulation
a manner of playing in which each note is held only for the shortest possible time
staccato articulation
two or more simultaneously sounding pitches
chord
a chord consisting of 3 pitches and 2 intervals of a third
triad
a self-contained portion of a melody, theme, or tune
phrase
the opening, incomplete sounding phrase of a melody, often followed by a consequent phrase that brings the melody to closure
antecedent phrase
the second phrase of a two-part melodic unit that brings a melody to a point of repose and closure
consequent
the concluding part of a musical phrase
cadence
a cadence at which the music does not come to a fully satisfying stop by stands as if suspended on a dominant chord
half cadence
a cadence that sounds complete, in part because it usually ends on the tonic note
full cadence
a short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself
motive
the repitition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower degrees of the scale
sequence
chord built on the 5th degree of the scale
dominant
chord built on the 4th degree of the scale
subdominant scale
a succession of chords moving forward in a purposeful fashion
chord progression
notes of a triad or seventh chord played in a direct succession and in a direct line up or down
arpeggio
pitches sounding agreeable and stable
consonance
discordant mingling of sounds
dissonance
an additional duration of fifty percent is added
dotted notes
two notes are played continuously as one note
tie
notes are to be played smoothly
slur (legato)
notes are to be played in a detached manner
staccato dots
note is to be held longer than its actual value
fermata
consists of a top number which designates the number of beats in the pattern and a bottom number which indicates the note type that gets one beat
time signature (meter signature)
marks the basic time unit in musical notation
bar unit
a group of beats, or muscal pulses
measure (bar)
group of five lines in which pitch is written
staff
combines both treble and bass clefs (11 lines)
grand staff
short lines added above and below the staff
ledger lines
notes that are high pitches
treble clef (G clef)

it looks like:
notes that are low pitches
bass clef (F clef)

it looks like:
raises a pitch 1/2 step
sharp

it looks like:
lowers a pitch 1/2 step
flat

it looks like:
cancels a previous accidental
natural

it looks like:
highest female vocal part
soprano
female vocal range between alto and soprano
mezzo-soprano
highest male vocal range
tenor
male vocal part of a middle range, between higher tenor and lower bass
baritone
lowest male vocal range
bass
a singer declaims, rather than sings, a text at only approximate pitch levels
sprechstimme
depresses a key that drives a lever upward and forces a pick to pluck a string
harpischord
violin, viola, cello, string bass, harp, guitar, mandolin, banjo, lute
strings
piccolo, flute, recorder, oboe, english horn, clarinet, bassoon, saxophone
woodwinds
trumpet, french horn, trombone, tuba
brass
timpani, xylophone, chimes, marimba, glockenspiel, vibraphone, celesta, triangle, cymbals, gong, snare drum, tambourine
percussion
character or quality of a musical tone as determined by its harmonics and its attack and decay
timbre
large instrumental ensemble that plays symphonies, overtures, concertos and the like
orchestra
music, usually instrumental, performed in a small concert hall or private residence with just one performer on each part
chamber music
standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of first and second violin, a viola, and a cello
string quartet
an instruction to string players to play with the wood of the bow instead of the hairs
col legno
performer slides the bow towards the bridge, making a fingernail on chalkboard sound
sul ponticello
process whereby a performer plucks the strings rather than bowing them
pizzicato
bow can be drawn across multiple strings at a time
multiple/double stops
slight and continual wobbling of the pitch produced on a string instrument or by voice
vibrato
device of sliding up and down the scale rapidly
glissando
any device that muffles sound
mute
secondary tones above a fundamental pitch that tekn in sum help for the totality of that sound
harmonics/overtones
rapid alternation of two neighboring pitches
trill
musical tremor produced by a string instrument by repeating the same pitch with quick up and down strokes of the bow
tremolo
the various levels of volume, loud and soft, at which sounds are produced in a musical composition
dynamics
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "very soft"

abbreviation:
piannissimo (pp)
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicting "soft"

abbreviation:
piano (p)
notation between soft and loud
mezzo piano (mp)
notation between mezzo piano and forte
mezzo forte (mf)
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "loud"

abbreviation:
forte (f)
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "very loud"

abbreviation
fortissimo (ff)
a gradual increase in the volume of sound

abbrevation:
crescendo (<)
a gradual decrease in volume of sound

abbreviation:
decrescendo/diminuendo (>)
a sudden, loud attack on one note or chord

abbreviation:
sforzando (sfz or sf)
signifies a sudden change in dynamics
subito
the density and disposition of the musical lines that make up a musical composition
texture
a musical texture involving onlyl a single line of music with no accompaniment
monophony
a musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines, the lines are often independent
polyphony (counterpoint)
a contrapuntal form in which the individual voices enter and each in turn duplicates exactly the melody that the first voice played or sang
canon
voices or lines frequently use imitation
imitative polyphony
independent lines that do not imitate eachother
nonimitative polyphony (free counterpoint)
all the voices, or lines, mote to new pitches at roughly the same time, often referred to in contradiction to polyphony
homophony
the purposeful organization of the artists materials, in music, the general shape of a composition as perceived by the listener
form
repeating a sound
repitition
the music is repeated anew for each successive strophe
strophic form
theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature
theme and variations
a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
binary form
a three-part musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the first, hence, ABA
ternary form