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99 Cards in this Set

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Sentences
A group of words that expresses a grammatically complete thought.
Subject (main subject)
The noun that performs the main action.
Types of subjects
Single noun - cloak
Gerund - sleeping
Infinitive - to learn
Noun clause -
That the dog had bitten her... gave her reason to fear it.
Verbs
Express action, condition, or state of being. The main verb expresses the main action.
Parts of speech
Nouns, Pronouns, Modifiers, Prepositions, Conjunctions
Nouns (What are they)
People places, and things.
Subject nouns (what does it do)
Perform the action
Object nouns (What do they do?)
Receive the actions or are the objects of prepositions.
Pronouns
Takes the place on nouns and are used to avoid repetitions.
Can function as either subjects or objects.
Modifiers
Describe or modify other words in a sentence. Adjectives describe nouns. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Prepositions
Words that show relationships between other words or phrases.
Conjunctions
Connect words or parts of sentences. (and, but, or)
Phrase
A group of words that acts as a part of speech, not a complete sentence.
Modifying phrases
Take on the role of adjectives or adverbs.
Noun phrases
Can be the subject or object of a sentence.
Clause
A group of words that has a subject and a verb. Can also act as subjects, objects, or modifiers.
Main clauses
Can stand alone as complete sentences.
Dependent clauses
Cannot stand alone as complete sentences because does not express a complete thought. Begins with that, whether, if, because, & (who, whom, whose, what, where, when, why, which, how.)
Subject-Verb Agreement
Singular subjects take singular verbs, and plural subjects take plural verbs.
Abstract nouns
Describe a quality, idea, or state of being and are SINGULAR.
(Sadness, truth, laughter, poverty, knowledge.)
Collective Nouns
Name a group of things, animals, or people. Has individual members but is a single entity, therefore SINGULAR.
Verb Forms as Nouns
The -ing (present participle) is used as noun- walking.
To form of verbs as like noun, (infinitive noun)- To err ... is human; to forgive... is divine.
Nouns that end in -s
Be careful, not all nouns that end in -s are plural. (Economics, The Netherlands)
Singular Pronouns (Examples of)
No one, nobody, nothing, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything, anyone, anybody, anything, none, each.
Compound Subjects
A subject that includes more than one noun. Rule 1: If "and" use plural. Rule 2: or, either...or, & neither...nor the verb agrees with the noun closest to it.
A number vs The number
A number: many things PLURAL
The number: one thing SINGULAR
Types of Subject Pronouns
I, you, he/she/it, we, they, who
Types of Object Pronouns
Me, you, him/her/it, us, them, whom
Possessive Pronouns
My, your, his/hers/its, our, their, whose
(These require noun: My...cat, Our... house.)

Mine, yours, his/her, ours, theirs
(Do not require noun: That's mine. It is ours.)
Pronoun Agreement
Use a singular pronoun to replace a singular noun,
& use a plural pronoun to replace a plural noun.
Antecedent
The noun a pronoun replaces.
Pronoun Ambiguity
Pronouns must unambiguously refer to a single noun.
Who vs. Whom
Subject - Who/she
Object - Whom/her
Use she/her test if confused.
Present Tense
I study, I am studying, I have studied.
Past Tense
I studied, I had studied, I was studying.
Future Tense
I will study, I will be studying, I will have studied.
Simple present
Expresses a habitual action, a fact, or something that is happening now.

Beth runs three miles daily. Both games are on.
Present progressive (Present continuous)
Used to describe something that is in progress right now. Uses form of "to be" followed by -ing verb. The kids are laughing loudly.
Present Perfect
Describes an action that started at an indefinate time in the past and either continues into the present or has just been completed. Uses helping verb has or have followed by past participle. He has read a book since twelve. I have never been to Spain.
Simple Past
Indicates a completed action or condition.
I wrote my final over the weekend.
Past Progressive
Use to describe an action that was ongoing in the past.
We were sleeping when the fire alarm went off.

This tense is formed with the helping "to be" verb,
in the past tense,
plus the present participle of the
verb (with an -ing ending):
Past Perfect
Used to make clear that one action in the past happened before another. Requires the helping verb had. Before she began college last fall, she had never been more than twenty miles from home.
Simple Future
Describes an action that will take place in the future. Requires use of helper verb will. I will go to school tomorrow.
Future Progressive
Describes an ongoing action that take place in the future. Requires helping verb "to" plus the -ing form of a verb. I will be cleaning my room when you arrive.
Future Perfect
Used to indicate an action that will be completed by a specific time the in the future.

subject + shall or will have + past participle of verb =

"I shall have gone to the store by the time you come."

"We will not have finished dinner by the time you arrive."
Which vs That
Which takes commas, and that does not.
Proportion words
Considered Singular: Seventy-five percent; one-half, etc
V-PIMPS
Most common types of errors.
Verb Tense
Pronouns
Idioms
Misplaced Modifiers
Parallel Construction
Subject-Verb Agreement
Split Infinitives
to + verb

to ski, to swim
Relative pronoun
who, whom, which, whose, and that
A relative pronoun links two clauses into a single complex clause.
Either/or
Use after the either/or?
Prepositions
Establish relationship between nouns. The bird flew _____ the fence. (Any word that can go there is a preposition.)
Circumference of Circle
C = 2πr
or
C = πd
Area of Circle
Value of √2
1.4
Value of √3
1.7
Volume of Circular Cylinder
When you see questions with variables:
Think PLUG IN!
Integer
A whole number that does not contain decimals, fractions, or radicals.

Integers can be negative, positive, or 0
Positive
Greater than 0
Negative
Less than 0
Even
An integer that is divisible by 2
Odd
An integer that is not divisible by 2
Sum
The result of addition
Difference
The result of subtraction
Product
The result of multiplication.
Divisor
The number you are dividing by
Dividend
The number you are dividing into
Quotient
The result of division.
Prime
A number that is divisible only by itself and 1.
Negative numbers, 0, and 1 are NOT prime.
Consecutive
In order, not necessarily ascending.
Digits
0-9; the numbers on the phone pad
Distinct
Different
Absolute Value
The distance from 0 on a number line. The absolute value is always positive. The symbol "I I" means absolute value.
Factors vs Multiples
A number has few factors, but many multiples.
Factor
A positive integer that divides into another positive integer. (Few factors)
Multiple
The product of some positive integer
and any other positive integer.
(Many multiples)
Prime factor
A factor that is also a prime number.
Rules of Divisibility 2
It's even (i.e. its last digit is even)
Rules of Divisibility 3
Its digits add up to a multiple of 3
Rules of Divisibility 4
Its last two digits are divisible by 4
Rules of Divisibility 5
Its last digit is 5 or 0
Rules of Divisibility 6
Apply the rules of 2 & 3. (Even and digits add up to multiple of 3)
Rules of Divisibility 9
Its digits add up to a multiple of 9
Rules of Divisibility 10
Its last digit is zero
Rules of Divisibility 12
Apply the rules of 3 & 4. (Digits add up to a multiple of 3 & last two digits are divisible by 4)
PEMDAS
Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction.
Simultaneous Equations
You must have at least as many distinct linear equations as you have variables in order to solve for all the variables.
Nota bene: Linear equations are that which do not have exponents!
More than, greater than, sum of
Addition
Less than, fewer than, difference between
Subtraction
Times as many/much as, times more than, of, the product of
Multiplication
Goes into, divided by, quotient of
Division
Is, are, was, were, equals, the same as
Equals