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12 Cards in this Set

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Positive regulation
insulin--[AMP]=> stops cAMP & causes PFK2 to be made
which stimulates F2,6 phos
which stimulates PFK-1
which participates in glycolysis
Rxn 4:Aldolase
(gives 2 products)
-reversible
1.F-1,6-bisphos--[aldolase]=> dihyroxyacetone phosphate (synth of triglycerides)
2.F-1,6-bisphos--[aldolase]=> glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (goes through glycolysis,yields E)
Rxn 5: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
-1st E YIELDING STEP
G3P--[G3Phos dehydrogenase+NAD+Pi]=> 1,3-bisphospo glycerate & H+ & NADH which go on to mitochondria for ox phos
-reversible
-inhibited by arsenate b/c competes w/ Pi
Rxn 6:Phosphoglycerate kinase
-1,3 biphosphoglycerate--[phosphoglycerate kinase+ADP]=> 3-phosphglycerate & ATP
-only rxn that involves ATP in glycolysis or glucogenesis
-1st YIELD OF ATP from glycolysis
-reversible
Rxn 7:phosphoglycerate mutase
3PG--[phosphoglycerate mutase]=> 2 phosphoglycerate
Rxn 8:Enolase
2PG--[enolase]=>PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate)
-inhibited by fluoride
Rxn 9: Pyruvate kinase
PEP--[pyruvate kinase+ADP+H]=>pyruvate & ATP
- the pyruvate goes on to TCA cycle
-highly regulated
-very exergonic
-inhibited by glucagon & inc E charge
-activated by F-1,6 bisphosphate
Anaerobic glycolysis
-pyruvate is made but then goes on to be converted to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase
-lactate goes out of the cell & into the bld
-NAD+ must be made continulally or else no ATP for rxns w/ glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase
-occurs in erythrocytes & ischemic
Impairment of glycolysis
-genetic:rare cause of anemia b/c of pyruvate kinase deficiency ,AR
occurs w/ 2,3 BPG compensation & reduces pathogenesis in erythrocytes
Inhibitors:
fluoride=enolase
arsenate=G3P
arsenite=inactivates lipoic acid enzymes which are needed in the 1st rxn of TCA
TCA cycle
-occurs under aerobic condtions
-pyruvate from glycolysis is taken to mito & oxidized which forms co2,H2O,NADH & 15 ATP/pyruvate
-when E charge is dec in cell,pyruvate is oxidized
-once in mito pyruvate encounters 2 enzymes:pyruvate carboxylase & PDH
Pyruvate carboxylase
-is in a cell w/ high E
-pyruvate enters cell & CoA is acetylated
-this activates pyruvate carboxylase
-which directs pyruvate to gluconeogenesis
-defeciencies lead to lactic acid build up & CNS damage
PDH
-dec E in cell inhibits pyruv carbox
-pyruvate is metabolized via PDH