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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
glucose to pyruvate -catobolic proces &
anabolic (alt pathways produce TG, AA, glycogen)
Glucose transport in Liver
Glut 2
Pyruvate kinase difficiency –
cronic – jaundice, low RBC (hct), low RBC lifespan, low ATP, no Heinz bodies , splenomeglia
Km of
1) .1
RLS of glycolysis
PFK1 (phosphofructokinase)
of hexokinase & glucokinase which is induced by insulin
Regulation of PFK-2
+ stimulated by dephosphorylation in insulin world
*uses ATP
Regulation of PFK-1
+ by AMP
+ by Fructose 2,6 bis phosphate
*uses ATP
Enzymes that undergo Substrate level phosphorylation
1) Phosphoglycerate kinase (glycolosis)
2) Pyruvate kinase (glycolosis)
3) Succinate Thiokinase (TCA cycle)
Which product of glycolysis binds to hemoglobin to reduce O2 affinity
2,3 bisphosphoglycerate
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
hemolytic anemia
increased BPG
No Heinz bodies
G6PDH deficinecy
Hemolytic anemia
BPG normal
increased Heinz bodies
Fates of pyruvate
1)in RBC - anaerobic - lactate dehydrogenase takes pyruvate to lactate to recycle an NAD+
2) Aerobic - in cells w/ mitochondria
2 shuttles in aerobic glycolysis
what do they do?
what are they?
What is differnce in insulin world & glucagon world?
Takes e- off NADH in cytosol to put them on NAD+ in mitochondria
2Glycerol-2-P Shuttle

In insulin world bring e- from cytosol to mitochondria
In glucagon world bring C from mitochondria to cytosol
serum glutamate oxyloacetate transaminate-- indicates liver damage
How many ATPs are generated in one run of Malate Aspartate shuttle and why?
Glycerol-3-Phosphate shuttle?
1) Malate Aspartate produces NADH inside mitochondria and delevers them to COMPLEX 1 on ETC therefore produces 3 ATPs?
2)Glycerol Phosphate shuttle utilizes FADH2 inside mitochondria delevers them to CoQ on ETC therefore produces only 2 ATPs?
Where does energy come from in regards to mitochondria?
pyruvate kinase rxn
-2ATP for every glucose
ATP production for 1 glucose:
1)anaerobic glycolysis
2)aerobic glycolysis
1)2 ATP (PEP - Pyruvic)
2)2 ATP (PEP - Pyruvic)+ 6 (NADH + H+ -- NAD)
ATPs produced from burning glucose molecule?
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate necessary for what in RBC
binds to decrease RBC affinity for O2 -- shift curve to right

2,3bpg is a markier for increase glucose. If we have a lot of glucose we have a lot of energy and need to let O2 get to the tissues for metabolism
What 4 sensors shift the affinity of hgb for O2 to the right?
1)2,3 BPG
2) increased H+
3) increased CO2
3 increased temp
** all signs of increased energy metabolism***
ethenol oxidation
7 kcal/gm
generates a lot of NADH but decreases ability to take energy from glucose
Describe compartmentalization in regards to triglyceride storage in adiposites and the interplay of glycerol-3-p dehydrogenase & glycerol kinase?
glycerol 3 P is recycled in liver via glycerol kinase. glycerol kinase is not present in adiposites.
Glycerol 3 P dehydrogenase is present in both liver & adiposites.
What are the 3 points of regulation in glycolosis?
1)Kexokinase/glucokinase(+ by insulin)
2)Phosphofructokinase ([+AMP& F-26-BP][-ATP & Citrate]
3)Pyruvate Kinase (- Phosphorylation {cAMP dependant} & alanine] [+ F-1,6-P]
Pyruvate Kinase regulation
pyruvate Kinase activated by dephosphorylation in a high insulin/glucagon ratio or after a high carbohydrate meal
It is inactivated by phosphorylation in low insulin/glucagon ratio during fasting.
Protein Phosphorylase regulation
Protein Phosphorylase is activated in low insulin/glucagon ratio during fasting
Fructose 2,6 Bisphosphate production
in high insulin/glucagon ratio after a high carb meal we increase phosphofructokinase-2 activity to form Fructose 2,6 bisphosphate
In a decreased insulin/glucagon ratio, during fasting we phosphorylate and increase Fructose 2,6 Bisphosphatase activity to decrease production of fructose 2,6 Bisphosphate