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72 Cards in this Set

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In the absence of carbohydrates, ___ used first
actin and myosin
Glycogen usually composed of ___ glucose monomers
10,000-50,000
2 types of glycogen, where found
Beta particle=1 glycogen molecule, found in muscle

Alpha particles=glycogen aggregates, found in liver
Enzymes used in the Biosynthesis of Glycogen
Hexokinase
Phosphoglucomutase
UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase
Glycogen Synthetase
Amylo(1--4 --> 1,6) transglycosylase
Hexokinase
Glucose to Glucose-6-Phosphate
irreversible
Phosphoglucomutase
Glucose-6-Phosphate to Glucose-1-Phosphate
UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase
Glucose-1-Phosphate+UTP to UDP=Glucose+ PPi
Glycogen Synthetase
Glycogen+UDP-Glucose to Glycogen+UDP
irreversible
UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase also known as
UDP-Glucose Uridyl transferase also known as
Amylo(1--4 --> 1,6) transglycosylase
Conversion of the 1--4 linkage in glycogen to 1---6 linkage
Glucogenin
Starts formation of glyucogen by creating the first few 1--4 linkages
Enzymes involved in the Metabolism of Glycogen
Glycogen Phosphorylase
Phosphoglucomutase
Glucose-6-Phosphatase
alpha-1-6-glucosidase
Glycogen Phosphorylase
Glycogen+Pi to Glucose-1-Phosphate + Glycogen
Phosphoglucomutase(metabolism)
Glucose-1-Phosphate to Glucose-6-Phosphate
Glucose-6-Phosphatase
Glucose-6-Phosphate to Glucose+Pi
alpha 1-6 Glucosidase
breaks Glucose 1--6 Linkages
Glycogen to Glucose+Glycogen
Regulation of Glycogen(2 points)
Glycogen Synthetase
Glycogen Phosphorylase
Glycogen Synthetase regulated by
covalent modification of 9 serine residues.

Phosphorylation=inactive
Glycogen Phosphorylase regulated by
covalent modification
Phosphorylated=active
Von Glerke Disease a deficiency in
Glucose-6-Phosphotase or the assosciated transport
Cori Disease a deficiency in
alpha-1,6 glucosidase
Anderson's disease a deficiency in
Amylo(1--4 --> 1,6) transglycosylase
McArdle's Disease a deficiency in
muscle glycogen phosphorylase
4 Basic Functions of Lipids
1.Building blocks of Phospholipids and Glycolipids
2. Modification or proteins to make lipoproteins(inc solubility, prodection of n-terminus)
3.Energy
4. Precursors of Hormones
2 types of lipids
Triacylglycerols
Glycerophospholipids
Which carbon is the site of beta oxidation
C3
Carbon at the end of a fatty acid chain labeled as
omega carbon
Fatty Acids with double bonds labeled as
Cis/Trans
Delta
Superscript with C# of double bond
Common Name: C12 fatty acid
Laurate
Common Name: C14 fatty acid
Myristate
Common Name: C16 fatty acid, no double bonds
Palmitate
Common Name: C16 fatty acid, one double bond
Palmitoleate
Common Name: C18 fatty acid, no double bonds
Stearate
Common Name: C18 fatty acid, 1 double bond
Oleate
Common Name: C18 fatty acid, 2 double bonds
Linoleate
Common Name: C20 fatty acid, no double bonds
Arachidate
Common Name: C20 fatty acid, 4 double bonds
Arachidonate
Glycerol condensed with ___ forms a triacylglycerol
3 fatty acids
Ethanolamine as X group,
characteristics, common name
Phosphotidylethanolamine(PE)
Common Name: Cephalin
Zwitterionic
Increases Solubility
Choline as X group
characteristics, common name
Phosphotidylcholine(PC)
Common Name: Lecithin
Charged at all pH levels
Increases Solubility(more than PE)
Serine as X group
Phosphotidylserine(PS)
Can be quickly processed into extracellular messengers
Increases Solubility
Inositol as X group
Phosphotidylinositol
Used as signaling molecules when phosphorylated
3 phosphorylations
known as the love molecule
Cardiolipin
Major Component of mitochondrial membranes, unique to its structure
Dipalmoitoyl Lecithin
Lung Surfactant that prevents atelosis
3 primary messengers used in the mobilization of fatty acids
Glucagon
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Epinephrine
Insulin is a ___ in the mobilization process
receptor antagonist
Adenylate Cyclase role in Mobilization
produces cAMP
function of cAMP in the mobilization process
binds to protein kinase, activating it
Protein kinase function in mobilization
Phosphorylates triacylglycerol lipase
Triacylglycerol Lipase
Adds water across ester linkage to release a fatty acid
function of phosphotase in mobilization
deactivates triacylglycerol lipase
Diacylglycerol Lipase
Diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol+fatty acid
monoacylglycerol lipase
monoacylglycerol to glycerol+fatty acid
2 Enzymes that function on glycerol
Glycerol kinase
glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase
Glycerol Kinase
Glycerol to Glycerol-3-phosphate
glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase
Glycerol-3-phosphate to DHAP
Acyl CoA Synthetase
lifts fatty acid from AMP
3 Enzymes used in the beginning of fatty acid metabolism
Acyl CoA Synthetase
Carnitine Acyltransferase I
Carnitine Acyltransferase II
Carnitine Acyl Transferase I
Transfers fatty acid to the 2nd hydroxyl group in carnitine
Carnitine Transporter
Recognizes Fatty Acid+Carnitine for transport into cell
Carnitine Acyltransferase II
Puts fatty acid back onto CoA for transport to beta oxidation
4 Enzymes involved in Beta Oxidation
Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase
Enoyl CoA Hydratase
Beta-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenase
AcylCoA Acetyl Transferase(Thiolase)
Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase
Alkane to Alkene(Double bond at C2-C3)
Enoyl CoA Hydratase
Addition of Water to form an alcohol on C3
Beta-hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenase
conversion of alcohol to ketone
AcylCoA Acetyl Transferase(thiolase)
Sulfur on CoA attacks carbonyl, removing C1 and C2 attached to a CoA
Enzymes used in Processing of unsaturated fatty acids
AcylCoA Dehydrogenase
2,4 Dienoyl CoA Reductase
Enoyl CoA Isomerase
2,4 Dienoyl CoA Reductase
Energetically Expensive Step
Merging of 2 double bonds(C2-C3 and C4-C5) to form 1 at C3-C4
Enoyl CoA Isomerase
Isomerization of double bond to C2-C3 position
Acetoacetate
used for fuel in brain in the absence of glucose

normally used by heart and kidneys
Aggregation of acetoacetyl CoA forms__and causes___
ketone bodies
downregulation of lipolysis
Role of Insulin(5)
increase glu transport into cells
inc AA transport into cells
inc synth. of prot and glycogen
inhibit fatty acid mobilization
decrease expression of glucagon