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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What must be true of a hypothesis for it to be useful?
It must be testable
True/False: If 2 different minerals have the same mineral composition, one can correctly predict that they will have the same physical properties.
Which kind of mineral makes up the greatest volume of rock (the so-called rock forming minerals)?
Silicate minerals
From which kind(s) of rocks can metamorphic rocks form?
All 3 rock types
Where in Earth is periodotite, the most common rock type, found?
Where in Earth is the most likely place to find grantite?
Continental Crust
What kind of magma wil typically form from the particle melting of a mafic rock?
Intermediate magma
The wet melting curve is most appropriate to magma generation at what tectonic level?
Subduction zones
Whoch of the following conditions maximize viscosity?
High silica, low temperature, many crystals
Which volcanic hazard is most likely to be associated with the shield volcano?
Fast-flowing fluid lavas
How does subjectivity enter into the process of scientific inquiry?
Scientific knowledge is subject to change and involves inference.
What is the difference betweena scientific theory and law?
A theory is supported by abundance of evidence and a law is based on observation (free from subjectivity of inference).
How do you test a hypothesis and why is this necessary in science?
By running an experiment. They are important because they display data and can lead to theories or laws.
What are the 4 spheres of the Earh system?
Hydrosphere (water), Atmosphere (gaseous layer above earth's surface), Biosphere (realm of organisms), and Geosphere (solid earth).
Why is the temperature on Venus hotter than that of Mercury, even though Venus is farther from the Sun?
Greenhouse effect and timing.
Give one example of how one of those subsystems affects/interacts with another.
The hydrosphere is strongly coupled to the atmosphere. They both are needed to regulate climate, sustain life, and shape the earth's surface.
How does the evolution of Earths atmosphere illustrate interaction between the 4 Earth spheres?
The atmosphere originated from outgassing of he geosphere, changed 80% CO2, 10% N, and 10% H20 to 78% N, 21% O, and 1% of other gases.
What is the nebular hypothesis?
The solar system formed from a single rotating cloud of gas and dust (nebula.)
How old is the universe?
4.6 billions year old.
How does the basic nature of the Earth as a rocky inner planet relate to its distance from the sun?
It is one of the terrestrial planets.
If iron (Fe) is so abundant in the Earth system, why is there not more of it found in the Earth’s crust?
The core is made entirely of iron.
What are the different parts of the geosphere as defined by their physical properties (rather than composition).
Crust, mantle, and core.
How does the cycling of CO2 in the Earth system illustrate interaction between the different parts of the Earth system?
Atmospheric chemistry is a great example of interaction among the different components of the Earth's system. Evolution of the biosphere and photosynthesis slowly changes atmospheric chemistry and leads to a build up of free oxygen.
What is the difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere?
Lithosphere: all of the crust and a bit of the mantle, it is elastic, and made of rock. Asthenosphere: is a weak sphere, acts plasticly, changes shape permanently to alleviate stress. The biggest difference is temperature, about 1200 degrees.
Why are silicate minerals so abundant?
There is a lot of silicon and oxygen on earth forming silicate.
What is hardness? Is a 2 on Mohs scale twice as hard as a 1?
No, it is simply in relation to the one before it.
If ice is a mineral (and it is), is water a mineral? Why/Why not.
Water is not a mineral because it does not have a defined structure.
What are the three kinds of chemical bonds discussed in class? Briefly describe each.
Covalent, Ionic and Metallic...
Which mineral is likely to be harder, an ionically bonded one or a covalently bonded one?
Covalent bonds are stronger because they share valence electrons.
Which is likely to be more soluble?
An ionic bond is more soluble.
What is cleavage and how is it different from crystal form.
Cleavage is how it breaks and crystal form is about how it grows.
How might one distinguish whether one was observing a cleavage surface of a crystal face?
With crystal form there is a pattern.
What are the main minerals one would expect to find in a granite?
Granite contains mostly feldspar and quartz.
What is a phaneritic texture and how does a basalt differ from a gabbro?
Phaneritic textured rocks are comprised of large crystals. A basalt and gabbro are differrent in the way they cool, one is extrusive and the other intrusive.
What does the fact that a rock has aphanitic texture infer about its origin?
Aphanitic: fine-grained texture, rapid cooling, microscopic crystals, may contain vesicles (holes from gas bubbles).
What is the name for an intermediate composition rock showing aphanitic texture? And what is its course-grained equivalent?
Andesite, is common in volcanic arcs above subduction zones, and its coarse-grained equivalent, diorite, is found in plutons along these same convergent plate tectonic margins.
What are two ways that the normally solid asthenosphere (upper mantle) can be caused to melt to form magmas? Associate each with a sense of relative motion between two lithospheric plates (a kind of plate tectonic boundary).
Increase temperature, decrease pressure, or add water to decrease the melting point.
Why are most magmas formed by the partial melting of rocks rather than the complete melting of rocks?
A rock is a mixture of several minerals and thay all melt at a different temperatures.
What is fractional crystallization? Generally, how would the composition (chemistry) of a mafic magma change in response to this process?
In fractional crystallization the solids are removed or isolated from the liquid, resulting in the remaining or residual liquid having a new composition.
What two factors control the composition of a magma produced by partial melting?
If pressure decreases slowly and or if water is added slowly, the minerals with the lowest melting tempratures melt first.
What kind (composition) of magmas are normally produced during partial melting of the mantle?
High magnesium and iron content, low silica.
Why/how can a magma change after it is formed?
Once it forms it rises towards the Earth's surface because it is less dense than surrounding rock. As it rises 2 changes occur, magma cools as it enters shallower and cooler levels of the Earth, and pressure drops because the weight of overlying rock decreases.
How is a felsic magma different from a mafic magma? Be sure to make reference to SiO2 (silica) content, Na/K content, Mg, Fe and Ca content, gas content, density and viscosity.
Felsic magma is light colored, has low specific gravity, silica/oxygen>65%, high in potassium, aluminum, and sodium, high volatile content, low temp, high viscosity. Mafic magma is dark colored, relatively high specific gravity, silica/oxygen: 45-52%, high in iron, magnesium, and calcium, low volatile content, high temp, and has a low viscosity.
What are the factors that affect the viscosity of a magma?
Temp. relative to solidus/liquidus temp, the composition of the magma (viscosity increases w/ increasing silica, dissolved gases (help reduce viscosity).
What is an example of mafic rock?
Basalt and gabbro.
Which kind of magmas are most likely to erupt explosively, mafic or felsic lavas. Why?
Felsic (BAM!) Mafic (flow) Mafic has low silica while felsic has high silica.
What is a shield volcano? What kind of magmas erupt from a shield volcano?
A shield volcano is a formed when a fluid basaltic magma builds a gently sloping mountain. Erupts basalt magma.
What is a composite (or strato) volcano? How does it differ from a shield volcano?
Forms over a long period of time from alternating lava flows and pyroclastic eruptions. Erupts a variety of types of magma and ash.
Give at least one example each of a shield volcano and a composite volcano that occur on Earth.
Shield volcano: Mauna Loa
composite volcano: Mt. Vesuvius
Where is the Mt. St. Helens? When did it last erupt? What mountain range is it a part of? Why does this volcanic mountain range exist?
It is located in Washington, it last erupted 1980, it is a part of the Cascade Mountain Range, exists because of plate tectonics.
Which has bigger explosions subduction zones or midocean ridges?
Subduction zone explosions are bigger than midocean eidges.
What is a batholith?
A pluton exposed over more than 100 square kilometers of the Earth's surface.
How is risk different from a hazard?
A hazard is something that can cause harm, while risk is the chance high or low that any hazard will actually cause someone harm.