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90 Cards in this Set

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From where to where does the gluteal region extend?
From the iliac crest to the gluteal fold (a crease in the skin where the dermis is fused to the deep fascia)
What is the cleft between the buttocks called?
The natal or intergluteal cleft.
What structure recieves the head of the femur?
The acetabulum.
WHen does the fusion of the pubus, ischium, and ilium occur?
In the mid 20s
What connects the head of the femur to the shaft?
The neck of the femur
What are the distal expansions of the femur called?
Medial/lateral condyle.
What aspect of the femur is the lesser trochanter located?
Posterior
What is the intertrochanter line? Which aspect of the femur is it on?
The line between the lesser and greater tubercle (on anterior aspect)
What is the intertrochanter crest? Which aspect of the femur is it on?
Between the lesser and greater trochanter on the posterior aspect of the femur.
Where is the gluteal tuberosity?
Inferior to the lesser trochanter on the inferior aspect of the femur.
What does the gluteal tuberosity blend into inferiorly?
The linea aspera.
Where does the linea aspera split into two lines?
At the supracondyle ridges.
What does the linea aspera and supracondyle ridges serve as a point of attachment for?
Intermuscular septa
What is the area between the supracondyle ridges called?
The popliteal surface.
Who has the greater average distance between the heads of the femurs, male or female?
Female, their pelvis is wider to accomodate birth.
What is the angle between the head and the shaft of the femur called? What is the normal range/average for this angle?
The angle of inclination. It is 115-140 degrees with a 126 degree median.
What is it called when the angle of inclination is greater than 140 degrees? What will happen to the knees?
Coxa valgus, bow legged knees will result.
What is it called when the angle of inclination is less than 115 degrees? What will happen to the knees?
It is called coxa varus, knocked knees will result.
What are the 2 dominant dermatomes in the posterior gluteal region? Give the 3 that are there in order from most lateral to medial.
Mostly S1 and S2

L5 most lateral, S1, S2 medial
What nerve innervates the fascia of the posterior thigh?
Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh.
Where does the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh originate from? What does it run with?
It is from S1 and S2. It runs with the sciatic nerve.
Which nerve innervates more skin than any nerve in the body?
Posterior cutaneous nerve.
Are there any major veins in the superficial fascia of the posterior gluteal ?
NO!
What is the deep fascia that attaches to the crest of the ileum called?
Fascia lata.
Where does fascia lata attach?
to the crest of the ilium and the lateral condyle of the tibia. (crosses the knee).
What does the fascia lata continue inferiorly as?
The iliotibial tract or band.
What is the iliotibial tract (broadly speaking)? What is its major purpose?
Thickened deep fascia. It serves as a point of attachment for muscles of the thigh.
Approximately how much of gluteus maximus inserts into the iliotibial tract?
3/4
What is the muscle that runs from the ASIS to the iliotibial tract called?
Tensor fascia latae.
What is the purpose of tensor fascia latae?
Puts tension on the lateral thickening of fascia lata (iliotibial tract) and also helps stability of the knee joint.
What are the 3 origins of Gluteus maximus?
Ala of ileum
Sacrotuberous ligament
Sacrum
Does gluteus maximus extend up to the iliac crest?
NO!
If you cut through the fascia latae just superior to gluteus maximus what muscle will you hit?
Gluteus medius.
What does the upper 3/4 of the gluteus maximus insert into? What is its other insertion?
Upper 3/4 into the iliotibial tract. The rest goes into the gluteal tuberosity.
Where would you NOT want to make an injection? Gluteus maximus or gluteus medius?
Gluteus maximus, can hit the sciatic nerve.
How can you find gluteus medius?
Put your thumb on the ASIS and roll your fist around. Your fist will come to lie on gluteus medius.
What is the action of gluteus maximus? Give some examples of when it would be used.
Only needed for powerful hip extension (sitting, getting up from sitting, climbing stairs, running)
Will gluteus maximus be used walking on a flat surface?
NO!
When someone stretches their leg out behind them they are undergoing hip _________.
extension
What is the origin of gluteus medius?
The ilium wing.
What is the insertion of gluteus medius?
Greater trochanter of the femur.
What is the origin of gluteus minimis?
Ilium
What is the insertion of gluteus minimis?
Greater trochanter.
Under what muscle can gluteus minimis be found?
Gluteus medius.
What is the function of gluteus medius and minimus?
ABduction of the hipjoint.
Is the function of gluteus minimis and medius a normal part of gait?
YES!
What is the action of gluteus minimis and medius while walking?
They contract and tip and stabilize the pelvis. This lifts up the nonwieght bearing side and allows for a free limb.
If a person has a nonfunctional gluteus minimis and medius, describe their gait.
A duck walk gait. They swing their foot out to prevent dragging.
Lesion of what nerve will give a person a duck walk gait?
Superior gluteal nerve
What is trendelenburg sign?
A person cannot tip thier pelvis/ stand on weak side/ lift good side due to gluteus minimus and medius not being functional.
What are the 6 external rotators of the thigh?
Piriformis, Superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, obturator internis, obturator externis, Quadratus femorus.
What foramen does the piriformis run through?
The greater sciatic foramen.
What seperates superior and inferior gluteal arteries and nerves?
Piriformis
What does the superior gluteal nerve innervate?
Gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fascia latae.
What does the inferior gluteal nerve innervate?
Only gluteus maximus.
Where does gluteus maximus get most of its blood supply from?
Inferior gluteal artery.
Where do the pudendal nerve and vessels run?
Out through the greater sciatic foramen, inferior to piriformis, back into lesser sciatic foramen.
What are the attachments of piriformis?
Pelvic side of sacrum, greater trochanter.
What are the attachments of quadratus femorus?
Ischial tuberosity, to part greater trochanter and part intertrochanter crest.
What separates superior and inferior gemellus?
Obturator internis.
What are the attachments of superior gemellus?
Ischial spine to greater trochanter.
What are the attachments of superior gemellus?
Ischial tuberosity to greater trochanter.
Give the lateral rotators of the thigh in order from most superior to inferior.
Piriformis, superior gemellus, obturator internus, inferior gemellus, Quadratus femoris, obturator externus (under QF)
Where does the obturator internis tendon run through/to?
Through the lesser sciatic foramen to the greater trochanter
What supplies all the lateral rotators of the thigh?
Branches from sacral plexus, EXCEPT for obturator externis.
What supplies obturator externus? What is the origin of this nerve?
Obturator nerve, L2 L3 L4
What is the major arterial supply of the lateral rotators of the thigh?
Inferior gluteal artery.
What forms the compartments in the posterior thigh?
Deep fascia latae attaching to the femur.
What are the 3 compartments of the thigh? What are the actions of muscles in each?
Anterior (knee extensors)
Posterior (knee flexors)
Medial (Hip ADductors)
What covers the proximal part of posterior thigh muscles in the standing position?
Gluteus maximus.
Where do the hamstring muscles take origin from?
Ischial tuberosity.
What is the most lateral hamstring muscle?
Long head of biceps femoris.
Where does the long head of biceps femoris insert?
Tendon to head of fibula.
What hamstring muscle is medial to the long head of biceps femoris?
Semimembranosous.
Where does semimembranosus insert?
Into a broad aponeurotic tendon
What is the most medial of the hamstring muscles?
Semitendonosus.
Where does semitendonosus insert?
Into a sharp, cord-like tendon.
What do the hamstring muscles do?
Flex the knee joint and help in hip extension on a flat surface.
Where does the biceps femoris short head take origin?
From linea aspira.
Where does the short head of biceps femoris insert?
Along with the long head into the head of the fibula.
What are the 2 requirements of being a hamstring?
Must take origin from ischial tuberosity
Must be innervated by tibial nerve.
What 2 nerves make up the sciatic nerve?
Tibial and common fibula nerve in a common tissue sheath.
Is the short head of the biceps femoris innervated by the tibial nerve?
NO!
Approximately how many people have no sciatic nerve?
15%
Does the sciatic nerve innervate anything?
NO!
Which way do the tibial and common fibula nerves split?
Tibial towards the midline
common fibula passes laterally
Does the sciatic nerve innervate anything?
NO!
When you flex your knee you cannot extend your hips as far. What is this called? What is it due to?
It is called active insufficiency. It is a muscle phenomenon.
When you kick high you cannot keep your knee extended. WHat is this called and what is it due to?
It is called passive insufficiency. YOu cannot stretch enough to allow maximum range of motion. THis is more due to CT wrappings as opposed to muscle issues.
What supplies the hamstring muscles blood wise?
Deep artery of the femoris that gives branches to the posterior compartment.