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6 Cards in this Set

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describe gluconeogenesis and key enzymes, and their regulation.
Pyruvate is converted to OAA via PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE enzyme [+ Acetyl CoA]. OAA is converted to PEP via PEPCK [I by glucagon, epinephrine, & glucocorticoids]. PEP is converted to G3P & DHAP which are then condenced to form Fructose 1,6 Biphosphate. FRUCTOSE 1,6 BISPHOSPHATE [ - by F=2,6-p; I by fasting] converts it to Fructose 6-phosphate which is thenconverted to glucose 6 phosphate which is then converted to glucose via GLUCOSE 6-PHOSPITASE [I by fasting]
Hepatic Glycolytic enzymes & regulation
Glucokinase
high Km for glucose
I by insulin

Phosphofructokinase
+F2,6P & AMP

Pyruvate Kinase
+ by F1,6 P
-ATP
-Alanine
- by phosphorylation (glucagon & epinephrine raise cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A)
gluconeogenic enzymes & regulation
Pyruvate carboxylase
+Acetyl CoA

PEPCK
Induced by glucagen and epinephrine
Repressed by insulin

Fructose 1,6 bisphoshatase
- by F2,6-P
I during Fasting

Glucose-6 phosphatase
I during fasting
1)where is malate shuttle?
2)Where is Gly3P shuttle
1)liver
2)mm
Describe Cori Cycle
In glycogen world glucose is expensive. We take glucose in RBC and get 2 ATP to feed RBC turn it into lactate & pyruvate to recycle C backbone. By doing this we conserve protein.
Cahill Cycle
Also conservation cycle uses alanine instead of lactate.