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36 Cards in this Set

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GLUCONEOGENESIS
synthesis of new glucose
*making glucose from a non carbohydrate source
Gluconeogenesis only occurs in the _______
liver
In gluconeogenesis, certain amino acids are converted to
three carbon compounds , these amino acids are glucogenic
STORING GLUCOSE AS GLYCOGEN
-takes place in liver and muscle tissue
synthesis of glycogen stimulated by pancreatic hormone insulin
insulin released by pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose
-occurs when blood glucose supply adequate
STORING GLUCOSE AS GLYCOGEN- synthesis of glycogen is stimulated by the ________
-the pancreatic hormone INSULIN
GLYCOGEN
insulin is required to stimulate glucose UTILIZATION by the _______.
liver
GLYCOGEN
There is one major different bw the glycogen stored in muscle and that stored in liver, bc liver glycogen can be used as ________.
a source of blood glucose
RETURNING GLUCOSE TO THE BLOOD
mobilization of glycogen occurs only in the liver,
-a further drop in blood glucose level stimulates release of pancreatic hormone GLUCAGON
RETURNING GLUCOSE TO THE BLOOD
Glucagon stimulates the brteakdown of liver glycogen stores
Glucose released into blood for use by tissues
Muscle tissue doesnt respond
STORING GLUCOSE AS GLYCOGEN
liver 1/3
muscle 2/3
REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE
hyperglycemia
hypoglycemia
BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL
Pancreas- releases glucagon when glucose is low
BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL
Liver-removes glucose from bloodstream( response to insulin)
Releases glucose into the bloodstream (response to glucagon)
Releases INSULIN WHEN GLUCOSE IS HIGH
Functions of Insulin
promotes glycogen synthesis
increases glucose uptake by the cells
reduceds gluconeogenesis
LOWERS THE BLOOD GLUCOSE
FUNCTIONS OF GLUCAGON
breakdown glycogen
enhances gluconeogenesis
RAISES BLOOD GLUCOSE
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
fight or flight response
breaksdown glycogen
raises blood glucose
CONSEQUENCES OF UNCONTROLLED BLOOD GLUCOSE
-ketosis-leads to ion imbalances, dehydration, coma, death
-Degenerative diseases-nerve damage, heart diesease, kidney disease, blindness
-atherosclerosis-increase risk for wound infections
SATURATED FATTY ACID STRUCTURE
degree of saturation:single carbon bond
stearic acid 18:0
MONOSATURATED FATTY ACID
oleic acid 8:1
one double bond
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID
linoleic acid 18:2
greater than 2 double bonds
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
body can only make double bonds after the 9th carbon from the omega end
-needed for immune function, vision, and cell membrane, and production of hormone like compounds
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS (PUFA)
Linoleic acid (18;2, OMEGA 6)-precursor of arachidonic acid 20:4
Linolenic (18:3, omega 3)- precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) or EPA and DHA
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID-OMEGA 6
(alpha linoleic acid)
1st double bond is located on the 6th carbon from the omega end
OMEGA 6 FATTY ACID
found in vegetable oils
corn oil, soybean, safflower, cottonsead, walnuts, salad dressing, mayonaisse
only need 1 tablespoon a day
THE DIFFERENT EFFECTS
archidonic acid (omega 6) increases blood clotting, increase inflammatory responses
-DHA, EPA (Omega 3; decrease blood clotting, reduce risk for heart attack, excess cause hemorrhagic stroke, may decrease inflammation pain with rheumatoid arthritis
MINIMIZE INTAKE OF TRANS FATTY ACID
limit hydrogenated fats
limit deep fried foods
limit high fat baked goods
limit use of non dairy creamers
DIETARY LIPIDS
triglycerides =95%
phospholipids and cholesterol 5%
GI PROCESSING OF FATS
Intestinal lumen, intestinal cell, lymph or blood
or
digestion, absorption, transport
DIGESTION OF LIPIDS
emulsification-lipids combined with bile, access to digestive enzymes
hydrolysis-lipids acted on by digestive enzymes
lecithinase-digests phospholipids
FIVE IMPORTANT FACTS ON BLOOD CHOLESTEROL
blood cholesterol level influenced by genetics, exercise, medications, menopause, diet
RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE
family history
smoking even second hand
high blood pressure
high blood cholesterol >200mg
high LDL cholesterol <40 mg
diabetes
lack of regular exercise and obesity
HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL)
-synthesized by liver and intestine
-high proportion of protein
-picks up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources
-transfers cholesterol to other lipoprotein for transport to liver for excretion
-HDL can also transfer directly back to liver
LOWERING LDLs
see doctor to assess other conditions
-reduce dietary saturated faty and cholesteral
-replace SFA with MUFA and PUFA
-increase dietary fiber (soluble)
BENEFITS OF A HIGH HDL LEVEL
-remove cholesterol from blood stream
-HDL may block oxidation of LDL
-reduce risk of heart disease
-pre menopausal women has higher HDL
RAISE THE HDL
physical activity, at least 30 min/day 7 days a week
avoid smoking
eat less total fat
moderate intake of alcohol increases HDL
DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS
no rda
30% or less of total calories from fat;no more than 10% from PUFA, no more than 10% from SFA
current diet supplies 33% of total kcal from fat-much from animal products, whole milk, pastries, chees, margerine, mayo