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82 Cards in this Set

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Absolute Monarchy
a form of authoritarian gov't in which a ruling family whose political authority rests on tradition, religion, or divine right controls the gov't; sometimes referred to as an autocracy
the requirement for gov't officials (eleced and non elected) to disclose their performance to the public
affirmative action
a set of voluntary policies enacted by the United States Congress in 1964 to correct past practices of discrimination against racial minorities, women, the diables, and other historically disadvantaged groups.
a political belief where gov't and law are replaced by mutual agreement between people
anticombine legislation
legislation preventing companies from joining together for business or political advantage, such as price fixing
a term first applied to a movement of opposition to Jews in the 19th century; prejudice or discrimination against Jews or anything Jewish
a political system developed in South Africa in which white south Africans controlled the political process and introduced policies that separated people by race.
a descendant of the people who spoke Aryan, the parent language of India and Europe; according to Hitler's racial philosophy, considered to be a superior race
a political principle or belief that all major decisions in society should be decided by one person or a small group of people
a form of authoritarian gov't in which the ruler's power to make decisions for society is unlimited ; see also absolute monarchy
Autonomous region
a form of local gov't in the people's republic of China originally set upto preserve the customs and languages of minority groups in Inner Mongolia, Tibet, Xinjiang, Guangxi, and Ningxia
a member of a political party who is not a member of the cabinet; an ordinary member of the legislature
bank rate
the interest rate set by the Bank of Canada and used in regulating the money supply to other banks
a social class that, according to Karl Marx, owns the means of production and does not work
in any political system, a group of non-elected officials that controls the administration and implementation of decisions made by political leaders
a group of advisors chosen by the Prime Minister or President to formulate policies and propose measures required for the implementation of the policies
an economic resource that includes buildings, equipment, machinery, tools and money to produce goods and services
an economic system in which the means of production are controlled and owned by individuals for personal profit often called market economy, free enterprise, private enterprise, laissez faire
Central Committee
a decision making body of a Communist Party elected by the Party Congress; see also party congress
centrally planned economy
an economy in which the state owns and controls the means of production, and all major economic decisions about production and distribution are made by a small group of planners
the middle ground on the political left-right continuum; favoring the status quo or minor changes
checks and balances
a fundamental principle of presidential democracy in which political power is distributed among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of gov't
civil liberties
the freedoms of individuals to develop values, views, and personal ideas independent of gov't; includes the freedoms of expression, worship, assembly, and demonstration, association in political groups, equality under the law, protection from terror, and respect for personal property, gender, race, movement, and choice of residence
class struggle
a concept developed by Karl Marx referring to the driving force of social change; a fundamental belief of socialism and communism
classical economics
a body of economic theory, first developed by Adam Smith in the late 18th century and elaborated in the 19th century by Thomas Malthus, Davis Ricardo, and others; private ownership, self-interest, and competition are fundamental aspects of an economy
a measure of gov't to end debate on a bill by imposing limits on opposition part members' time to speak.
a temporary alliance of political parties for some specific purpose
collective bargaining
in Sweden, refers to nationwide negotiations conducted between employers and trade unions over wages and working conditions; in Canada and the United States, refers to negotiations between an employer and a trade union
collective farm
an association of people who come together to work the land and to share the results of their work; existed in the Soviet Union, and between 1950 and 1958 in China
collective ownership
a form of public property in which some property rights are granted to individuals and other rights are held by the state.
an ideology in which the interests of the group are more important than those of the individual
an ideology in which the interests of the group are more important than those of the individual
command economy
see centrally planned economy
a political and economic system based on community or state ownership of wealth, property and the means of production, with each person working for the common good according to ability and recieving in return according to need
individuals vying with one another to gain recognition for their achievements or to secure customers for their goods and services
concentration camp
a collection of barracks set up to hold political opponents and others; first used in 1900-1902 by the British in South Africa to intern civilians for helping Boer guerillas; widely used in Nazi Germany for imprisoning political opponents
the bicarmeral, national legislature of the United States, consisting of an elected upper chamber, the Senate, and an elected lower chamber, the House of Representatives
Congress of People's Deputies
an elected legislative body created in the Soviet Union in 1988, with powers to formulate laws, elect a full-time Supreme Soviet, and represent the interests of the Soviet population; abolished in early 1992 following the breakup of the Soviet Union
general agreement among all people consulted
the belief that social change should take place slowly and in accordance with established traditions
a political attitude or person supportive of the status quot based on traditional values
an area or territory whose voters elect a representative to a legislative body or assembly
the fundamental principles and rules according to which political power is allocated in a gov't, divided among various levels of gov'ts and between a gov't and the people
constitutional monarchy
a form of gov't in which the head of state is a member of a traditional ruling family but whose functions are largely ceremonial, who acts on the advice of elected ministers
consumer soverignty
an economic concept which describes the power of consumers to determine production through their purcahses of goods and services; sometimes referred to as dollar voting
controlled participation
a method used in a non-democratic system to give people a sense of participation in gov't
individuals deciding to work together to realize mutual goals
an organization or business which is collectively owned by it's users, through which they realize mutually agreed-on goals
corporate state
organization of the ecomony based on groupiong the labour force according to occupation, profession, and work; first developed in Italy under Mussolini in the 1920's; source of inspiration for some measures undertaken by Hitler to reorganize the German economy in the 1930s
a form of business organization that is created by law and has the right to sell shares to individuals, commonly referred to as a limited company
a learned way of life shared by a group of people, including values, beliefs, customs, traditions, roles, knowledge, institutions; sometimes used to refer to the arts and artifacts of a society
the quantity of goods and services people are willing to buy
demand-side economics
the body of economic analysis concerned with the capability of the economy to adjust to fluctuations in consumption and investment with policies designed to increase total demand for goods and services in the economy
a political systm whose origins lie in ancient Athens; rests on the fundamental principle of rule by the people; characterized by free competition for political power, political equality for all, and rule by the many
democratic centralism
a doctrine developed by Lenin in which discussion of issues by members of the Communist Party was allowed until a decision was made; once a decision was made, all party members were expected to follow it and no further discussion was tolerated
a process that leads to increased public participation in the decision making process and the creation of democratically elected institutions
a campaign undertaken by Allied forces to eliminate Nazism in Germany between 1946 and 1949; directed against Germans who were members of, or collaborated with, the Nazi Party; such individuals were compelled officially to renounce their political past and accept guilt for their misdeeds
a sharp contradiction in levels of production and employment
criticism of some Stalin's actions and rejection of some of his practices, especially of the use of terror against the people
a political system whose fundamental principle is authoritarianism and rule by one leader or a small group of people
dictatorship of the proletariat
a term developed by Karl Marx to refer to a form of society in which the workers seize the property of the rich classes, abolish private property, and establish a worker's gov't
direct democracy
a form of democracy without representation in which all eligible adult members of society participate in making decisions and passing laws
a person who criticizes the gov't and disagrees with the policies of the leadership
economic system
a set of institutions and practices that determine the prodution and distribution of goods and services
the belief that all people should have equal political economic and social rights
electoral college
in the US an assembly that elects the Prez and Vice Prez
belief that some people are more capable than others of making decisions for society
enabling Act
passed by the German Reichstag o March 23, 1933, temporarily suspending the constituion and granting the Chancellor power to enact laws by decree
an economic concept in which demand and supply are in balance and prices do not change
a branch of gov't concerned with the execution of policy and leadership in society
a grouping within a political party based on relations between the leader and supporters
political belief developed by Mussolini in 1922 to establish authoritarian rule in Italy after 1933 by Germany; characterized by extreme nationalism, reliance on military power to achieve national goals and a state controlled private enterprise economy
Federal Reserve System
the central bank in the United States comprised of 12 regional federal Reserve Banks and private commercial banks; commonly called the Fed
federal state
an organization and division of power among various levels of gov't wherein the central gov't cannot overrule or usurp the jurisdictions of other gov'ts
the right to unlimited debate, usually an attempt to obstruct parliamentary proceedings by prolonging debate.
fiscal policy
a set of measures concerned with the overall effects of gov't spending and taxation on the economy
Five Year Plan
merchanism for facilitating and promotin the rapid expansion of heavy industry, first instituted in 1928-1929 in the Soviet Union
title used by Hitler to signify his role as supreme head of National Socialist ermany and as the head of the German people and nation
General Secretary
head of the administrative arm of a Communist Party and member of the Politburo
the drawing of constituency boundaries by the party in power to gain undue advantage in future elections
German abbreviation for secret police force formed in 1933 to arrest and imprison political opponents of teh Nazi Party and Hitler; sought to track down and eliminate all dissidents, complainers, and opponents of Naionalal socialism
glasnost (Russian)
openness; a policy initiated by Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in 1986 to improve communication between the state and society