Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

264 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A compound that increases hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in solution
A cuplike body at the anterior tip of sperm containing several enzymes that aid the sperm in penetrating an egg
A protein that makes up the thin filament in muscle. Actin and myosin, a larger protein, are the ultimate structural units of contractility.
The clumping of cells or particles in a fluid. For example, agglutination of blood cells occurs when incompatible blood types are mixed.
An adrenal cortical hormone, which stimulates the reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys, and thereby reduces the amount of sodium in the urine
One form of a gene, responsible for one of two or more contrasting traits
all-or-none principle
The concept that an event happens to its fullest possibility or not at all; usually used to refer to the firing or lack of firing of a nerve impulse
A tiny thin-walled air sac in a lung, surrounded by a network of blood vessels, where gas exchange occurs between oxygen and carbon dioxide
One of the special extraembryonic membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo floats
A stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equator toward the poles of the spindle
A condition resulting from decreased concentration of erythrocytes in the blood or from decreased concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes
A flowering plant whose ovules are enclosed within ovaries
The pollen-producing organ of a flower
An ovoid, multicellular male sex organ that produces sperm; found in mosses and ferns
The practice of regarding animals in terms of human characteristics
A specific protein synthesized in direct response to the presence of a foreign material (antigen) within the body
The sequence of three nucleotides on transfer RNA that recognizes and pairs complementarity with three nucleotide codons of messenger RNA
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, inhibits the excretion of urine by promoting water reabsorption in the kidneys
A foreign material that elicits an immune response resulting in the synthesis of an antibody
A multicellular female sex organ that produces eggs; found in mosses, ferns, and conifers
A thick-walled, elastic vessel that carries blood away from the heart
A chamber of the heart, which receives blood from a vein and pumps it to the next chamber, the ventricle
autonomic nervous system
A portion of the vertebrate nervous system that controls such involuntary activities as breathing and glandular secretion
An organism capable of synthesizing its food from inorganic sources
A hormone involved in the regulation of plant growth
A part of a neuron, a long process extending from the cell body and It usually carries impulses away from the cell body.
A compound that increases hydroxyl ion (OH ) in solution
The total weight of organisms in an ecosystem
A major division of the Earth's surface, largely determined by climate but characterized by the plants and animals inhabiting it
A hollow ball resulting from cellular cleavages early in embryonic development
Bohr effect
High carbon dioxide level in the blood causes more oxygen to be released from hemoglobin
One of the two posterior branches of the trachea serving as a passage for air to the lungs
A compound with dissociated ions that resists change in pH
Calvin cycle
The process by which carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrates during photosynthesis
A malignant tumor characterized by abnormal, uncontrolled growth
A small, thin-walled blood vessel that serves as connecting vessels between arteries and veins and permits exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon dioxide between the blood and tissues
Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that serve as cellular energy sources: sugar, starch, cellulose
A chemical that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed during the reaction
cell membrane
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the cell, consisting mainly of phospholipid and protein
central nervous system
The division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
A small paired organelle, found in the cytoplasm, involved in the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus during cell division
A part of the brain divided into two hemispheres, with each hemisphere divided further into lobes and Each lobe contains special functional areas, including areas for speech, vision, movement, learning, and memory.
The neck of the uterus, which opens into the vaginal canal
Sensory cell or organ capable of perceiving chemical stimuli, such as those of smell and taste
An insoluble, strong polymer that forms the tough outer skeleton of the arthropods
A plastid that contains chlorophyll; photosynthesis is initiated when light strikes a chloroplast
A lipid that is an essential part of the human diet. Besides acting as a usual source of energy and assisting tissue maintenance, it is also needed for the production of bile acids and sex hormones.
An extraembryonic membrane that forms an outer membrane around the embryo; in mammals, the chorion makes up most of the placenta
The nucleo-protein structure that contains the hereditary units, the genes
Short, bristle-like locomotor organelles on the free surface of cells
circadian rhythm
Daily cycle of behavior
The cell divisions, initiated after fertilization, that mark the beginning of embryonic development
Small erectile body just anterior to the vaginal opening; it is homologous to the male penis
A genetically uniform population of cells or organisms derived asexually from a single ancestor
Prebiotic aggregates formed by organic compounds, which may eventually have led to the formation of biological cells
A sequence of three nucleotides in messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
The body cavity of an animal, between the body wall and the internal organs
Part of the large intestine that functions in the reabsorption of water from undigested material
A substance composed of molecules consisting of different kinds of atoms; every molecule of one compound contains the same elements joined in the same proportions by weight
A reaction in which small, simple molecules are combined into larger, more complex ones, with the elimination of one or more molecules of water (see hydrolysis)
A type of learning in which an animal is rewarded or punished according to its reaction to a given stimulus
(1) Light-sensitive cells in the retina of the eye; used in color vision (2) Spore-bearing structures in nonfiowering plants, such as pine trees
Sexual union of similar cells, as in some algae, protozoa, and bacteria
corpus luteum
A glandular structure in mammals formed from the remnants of an ovarian follicle that secretes the hormone progesterone
A process during prophase I of meiosis, whereby nonsister chromatids exchange parts; also the genetic results of such a change
A layer of wax and cutin coating the external surface of epidermal cells in plants
(Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate) - A chemical substance that plays a major role in mediating cellular activity in animals, bacteria, slime molds, etc
Short, threadlike process, extending out from the cell body of a neuron, dendrites carry impulses toward the cell body.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded helical molecule that is a constituent of chromosomes; contains genetic information coded in specific sequences of its nucleotides
diabetes mellitus
An inherited metabolic disease caused by insufficient production of insulin and Cells are unable to use glucose, which is excreted in the urine.
A muscular partition that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and assists in respiratory function
Period during the cardiac cycle where the atrioventricular valves open, filling the ventricles with blood
dicotyledons (dicots)
One of two major classes of angiosperms characterized by two embryonic seed leaves (cotyledons)
Tendency of molecules to disperse throughout a medium moving from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
The enzymatic process by which the body breaks down the large, complex molecules of food into its molecular and chemical components so that these nutrient molecules can be assimilated by the cells
dihybrid cross
A cross between individuals differing in two inheritable traits, or in which only two such different traits are considered by an experimenter
Down's syndrome (Mongolism, Trisomy 21)
A genetic disorder in which an extra chromosome is present
ECG (electrocardiogram)
A record of the electrical activity of the heart
The study of organisms in relation to all the forces that act upon them
A space containing an interacting group of organisms, more or less self-contained, such as an enclosed field, a pond, or small island
The outer germ layer of an embryo, which gives rise to the skin, hair, fingernails, horns, hooves, brain with associated nervous tract, and eyes
EEG (electroencephalogram)
A record of the electrical activity of the brain
Forceful emission of seminal fluid from the penis during climax
electron transport system
Represents a series of respiratory pigments of the mitochondrion that function as a "bucket brigade" for the passage of electrons from reduced coenzymes (NADH, FADH2) to oxygen
Substances composed of molecules whose atoms have the same atomic number (number of protons)
Activities or reactions that require energy
endocrine gland
A ductless gland that secretes its product into the bloodstream without an emptying tube
The inner germ layer of an animal embryo lining the archenteron and it gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract, liver, lungs, and pancrease.
The nutritious inner layer of the uterine wall
endoplasmic reticulum
A labyrinthine complex of double membranes in the cytoplasm of a cell, acting as a system of internal channels through which various materials move
Internal skeleton, which provides support and rigidity of form; typical of vertebrates
Reactions that occur with absorption of heat or other energy; endergonic; the opposite of exothermic or exergonic
The capacity or ability to do work
A protein that catalyzes or speeds up a biochemical reaction without being changed during the reaction
A valve that presses down and prevents food from entering the trachea or larynx during swallowing
epinephrine (adrenaline)
A neurohormone, secreted by the adrenal medulla, that produces a "'fight or flight" condition, which permits the body to react quickly and strongly to emergencies
Cell in bone marrow which is nucleated until it develops into a red blood cell
A red blood cell
One of the female sex hormones, secreted by ovarian follicles, which stimulates the thickening of the smooth muscle and the glandular lining of the inner walls of the uterus It also promotes the development of secondary sex characteristics
An organism or cell with a membrane-bound nucleus; possesses mitochondria, plastids, ftagella, and other organelles
An overabundance of nutrients provided in the waters of a river or lake, stimulating overgrowth of phytoplankton or algae. This floral population soon reaches a density at which vital gases and nutrients are used up, and the overgrown "blooms" produce toxins and die as an unpleasant rotting mass.
Progressive change
Pertaining to activities or reactions that release energy
exocrine gland
A gland, such as a salivary or sweat gland, which exudes its secretion by a distinct duct or opening; contrasted with endocrine glands
External or outer skeleton that provides structural support and protection for arthropods
The union of gametes resulting in a doubling of the chromosome number
The highly developed human embryo, from the third month of pregnancy until birth
A long, whiplike locomotor organelle on the surface of a cell
A sexual reproductive cell; an egg or sperm
A cluster of cell bodies of neurons located outside the central nervous system
The phase of embryonic development when there is infolding of the blastula to form the gastrula
A specific segment of DNA that controls a specific cellular function either by coding for a polypeptide or by regulating the action of other genes; the foundation of inheritable traits
gene pool
The total genetic material of all individuals in an interbreeding population (species)
genetic code
The set of linear sequences of triplet nucleotide bases that represent specific amino acids
One complete set of genes in an organism: a haploid organism has one genome, a diploid has two.
An individual's genetic makeup
The respiratory organ of aquatic and some terrestrial organisms. Gills extract oxygen and release carbon dioxide Gills extract oxygen and release carbon.dioxide
A tight ball of capillaries that filter blood through their walls into the Bowman's capsule
A hormone, secreted by alpha cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans; increases blood glucose concentration by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen to glucose
A group of hormones concerned with glucose-glycogen balance in blood
The initial anaerobic breakdown of glucose to an intermediate compound, occurring in the cytoplasm of a cell
Golgi body
Organelles that exist as stacks of vesicles whose major function is the storage, modification, and packing of materials produced for secretory export
An organ that produces gametes, either ovaries or testes
Nonflowering seed plant
The local physical dwelling place of an organism, such as a bare rock, a moist, cold, evergreen forest, or a tropical estuary
Hardy-Weinberg principle
Mathematical formula used in calculating the approximate frequencies of different alleles in a population after measuring the frequency of phenotypes in a representative sample of the whole population
Chief transport protein involved in carrying oxygen within the red blood cell
Also called bleeder's disease; uncontrolled bleeding in humans due to the lack of a necessary blood-clotting constituent; a genetic disease caused by recessive alleles at either of the two sex-linked loci
hepatic portal system
A system of vessels in which the venous blood coming from the intestines passes through the capillaries in the liver before moving on to the posterior vena cava
An individual who has a different pair of alleles for a genetic trait
The dormant state of animals, with concomitantly lowered body metabolism
The study of biological tissue
A basic protein associated with DNA in chromosomes
The maintenance of a measure of physiological stability in spite of environmental changes
Pertaining to similar body parts in different species, arising from common construction and development, such as bird, wings and whale flippers
An individual who has the same pair of alleles for a genetic trait
Fixed action or stereotyped behavior; a controversial and poorly defined term, which is not generally acceptable to students of behavior
A hormone, secreted by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans portion of the pancreas: facilitates glucose transport across cell membranes-- Insulin enhances the conversion of glucose to glycogen
An interruption in DNA by stretches of nucleotide strands that do not code for any amino acids
The size, shape, and appearance of a metaphase chromosome set of an individual or species
An organ unique to the vertebrates that is the chief excretory unit
Krebs cycle
The major aerobic pathway for oxidative degradation of the products of glycolysis-- Also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
In experimental psychology, the modification of behavior as a result of changes in individual experience
A white blood cell
Tough sheet of fibrous tissue connecting two or more separate bones or cartilages
A class of organic compounds that tend to be insoluble in water or other polar solvents but soluble in organic solvents such as toluene or ether
The largest gland, which has many important functions, including among others the storage of foods, production of bile salts, conversion of stored glycogen to glucose, deamination of amino acids, and breakdown of hemoglobin
Any of several white blood cells involved in immunity
The inactive state of a virus in a living bacterial cell
A cytoplasmic organelle rich in hydrolytic enzymes
Malpighian tubules
The excretory system of insects and spiders
A disease caused by insufficient quantity of food, as contrasted with inadequate quality--It results in general weakness and lack of muscle tone
Sensory cell or organ capable of perceiving changing mechanical stimuli, such as those of touch or hearing
A series of cell divisions resulting in the development of gametes
Permanent termination of the menstrual period in a woman
menstrual cycle
Refers to the series of events that periodically modifies the female reproductive tract of humans and advanced primates
The middle germ layer of an embryo, between the ectoderm and endoderm, giving rise to muscle, connective tissue, bone, circulatory system, lining of coelom, and urogenital system
Elongated, hollow, cylindrical structures that facilitate the motility of flagella and cilia
A self-replicating cytoplasmic organelle, called the "powerhouse of the cell; the site of Krebs
cycle activity and the cytochrome system
Its main work is the production of ATP for use in cellular respiration
Cell division process of a somatic cell
monocotyledons (monocots)
One of two major classes of angiosperms characterized by one embryonic seed leaf (cotyledon)
motor unit
A group of skeletal muscle fibers activated by the same nerve fiber
Agents that produce genetic mutations
Fungus inhabiting the roots of higher plants, feeding off the host, and aiding the host in the intake of minerals
A fatly protein material, wrapped around the axon of some nerve fibers, that aids in the conduction of electrical impulses
A subdivision of a muscle fiber
A 100-angstrom-thick protein that makes up the thick filaments of the muscle
Organ responsible for excretion in earthworms
Functional units of the kidney which assist in the actual production of urine
A bundle of fibers enclosed in a connective tissue sheath through which stimuli are transmitted from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system or vice versa
nerve impulse
An electrochemical impulse passing along a nerve fiber
A nerve cell, the fundamental unit of the nervous system
The physiological, behavioral, or nutritional specialty of an organism, permitting it to survive in a given habitat; determined by the physiological or behavioral actions of a given species
A molecule consisting of a phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar called a deoxyribose, and a single nitrogenous base selected from a pool of two purines (adenine or guanine) and two pyrimidines (thymine or cytosine)
Round or oval body lying near the center of the cell responsible for replication and metabolic processes
An organism that can and does eat both plant and animal material
Specialized structure of a cell comparable to the organs of the body
The simple movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane
An egg-producing organ
A chemical reaction in which electrons are removed from the substance being oxidized
The study of fossils
An organism that obtains its nourishment from another organism, usually by remaining in contact with its host
parasympathetic nervous system
A part of the autonomic nervous system that helps to regulate body functions
parathyroid glands
Four tiny glands, embedded in the thyroid gland, that secrete parathormone (PTH), which is responsible for increasing the calcium level and decreasing the phosphate level in blood
Digestive process consisting of a sequence of contractions propelling the food along the digestive tract in a mouth-to-anus direction
pH scale
Defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration
Surface engulfment of large structures such as bacteria by protozoans or white blood cells
Functions in the transport of carbohydrates, amino acids, oligopeptides, and some lipids through the vascular tissues of plants
The ability of some organisms to respond metabolically to variations in day length
Process by which high-energy, complex food molecules are produced from simpler components by green plants and other autotrophic organisms in the presence of light energy
A light-sensitive pigment involved in seed germination, flowering, morphogenesis, anthocyanin synthesis, etc
Surface engulfment of small structures by a cell membrane
pituitary gland
The so-called "master gland", and endocrine gland that controls most of the other endocrine glands
In mammals, the tissues composed partly of uterine wall and partly of extraembryonic membranes, through which waste and nutrients pass for a developing embryo
One of the female sex hormones, produced by the corpus luteum
A cell that has no membrane-delimited organelles
One of a group of fatty-acid hormones whose effects include contraction of uterine muscle, inhibition of progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, and lowering of blood pressure
prostate gland
A gland in male mammals that furnishes fluid for the transport of sperm
Class of organic compounds consisting almost entirely of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
A saw-like device in some mollusks that assists in the mechanical grinding and processing of food
red blood cells
One of the formed elements in the blood, responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
reflex arc
A group of two or three neurons regulating a fairly simple body movement without conscious participation of the brain
In animal behavior, a signal, such as an odor, sound, or movement that evokes a specific, unlearned response
The protein that can combine with and repress action of an associated operator gene
Process whereby organisms oxidize metabolites in the presence of oxygen to capture the energy contained within the bonds of the metabolites
Rh factor [rhesus factor]
A group of blood cell antigens, clinically important because they can cause destruction of blood cells in certain newborn infants afflicted with erythroblastosis
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A single-stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that is similar to DNA with the following exceptions: the 5-carbon sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose and the pool of pyrimidines for the nitrogenous base consists of cytosine and uracil instead of thymine
A photoreceptor in the retina of the eye containing light-sensitive pigment (rhodopsin)
A single muscle unit extending from one Z line to the next
saturated fat
Fatty acid whose carbon chain holds the maximum number of H atoms (only single bonds among the carbon atoms)
An external sac between the male thighs containing testes and parts of spermatic cords
segregation, law of
Mendel's first law that affirms the existence of a pair of particulate factors (genes) which control each trait and which must segregate (separate) at gamete formation and then come together randomly at fertilization
seminal vesicle
The portion of the male reproductive system that secretes nutritive fluids for sperm
Genetic traits inherited differently between males and females
Organisms living together in organized groups
somatotropic hormone (STH)
A hormone, secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that regulates the growth of the skeleton
The development of new species
A group of individuals capable of producing fertile offspring
spinal cord
A part of the central nervous system that passes through the protective vertebrae, from which 31 pairs of spinal nerves branch to each side of the body
A reproductive cell in plants; in general, any nonsexual reproductive cell
A spore-bearing leaf
A fat-soluble compound of four connected carbon rings, occuring in many hormones
sympathetic nervous system
A part of the autonomic nervous system that controls metabolic activities
The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron
Chronological and morphological classification of organisms
A fibrous band that connects a muscle to a bone
In animal behavior, a specific area guarded against intrusion by other members of the same species
test cross
A cross between an experimental organism of unknown genotype and one with recessive phenotype to determine the genotype of the unknown
Male gonads that produce sperm cells
The primary androgenic hormone that affects the production of sperm, the development of sex organs, and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics
Branch of science that deals with the transformation of energy in all of its forms
Sensory cell or organ that is sensitive to changing temperature
A gland in the neck that secretes the hormones thyroxine, which controls the rate of metabolism and growth, and thvroealcitonin, which lowers the calcium level in the blood
A hormone secreted by the thyroid that regulates metabolic rate and growth
The ability of a cell (or nucleus) to develop (or regulate the development) into any kind of differentiated cell: having complete genetic ability
Commonly known as the windpipe, a lube connecting the larynx and the bronchi through which inhaled air flows.
unsaturated fat
Fatly acid whose carbon chain contains double or triple bonds between any of the carbon atoms.
The duct or passageway for the transport of urine from the kidneys to the bladder
The tube originating from the bladder through which urine flows and is excreted from the body
The womb: the pear-shaped organ located just beyond the vagina, which houses, nourishes, and protects (he developing fetus within its muscular walls.
A membrane-bound vesicle located in the cellular cytoplasm, containing mostly water with salts proteins, crystals, and pigments.
A muscle-lined tube that receives sperm from the penis during sexual intercourse and allows the fetus to pass down from the uterus during childbirth.
Special organic substances necessary in liny amounts to sustain life
white blood cells [leukocytes]
One of the formed elements of the blood: they serve as scavengers and immunizing agents.
Serves as a continuous passageway for the transport of water and dissolved solutes through the vascular tissues of plants, primarily in an upward direction.
A thick-walled spore developing from the sexual fusion cells in some algae and fungi
The cell formed by the union of a sperm and an egg
The decomposition or separation of a molecule through the addition of water molecules
Referring to organisms that live where water is abundant
High blood pressure
A condition caused by an oversecretion of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) by the pituitary or by a thyroid tumor, also known as Graves' disease.
A tangled mass of multibranched threads or filaments of a fungus
A condition of low blood sugar, caused by excessive secretions of insulin
A portion of the brain, below the thalamus, that controls many physiological and endocrine activities
Underactivity of the thyroid gland and the resultant insufficiency of iodine usually causes a goiter, a swelling in the neck.
hypothyroidism (goiter)
A condition characterized by an enlarged thyroid caused by insufficient iodine in the diet
The science dealing with the process whereby organisms develop a chemical resistance, an antibody, to a foreign substance, its antigen, such as pollen, viruses, or bacteria
The sinking of the blastocyst into the endometrium of the mammalian uterus
The rapid fixing of social preferences. For example, newly hatched goslings will form an attachment to the first creature they can follow as their mother
independent assortment, law of
A generalization of Mendel which states that when one pair of alleles segregates during sexual reproduction, its manner of segregation is not affected by the manner of segregation of a second pair of alleles
The influence of one type of tissue on the developmental pattern of another type of tissue
In anatomy, the point of attachment of a muscle to the bone that moves
Fixed action or stereotyped behavior; a controversial and poorly defined term, which is not generally acceptable to students of behavior