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73 Cards in this Set

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The Indian Sub-Continent
A Triangular peninsula surrounded by mountains (Hindu Kush and Himalayas) and water (Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal), including Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Asia and Sri Lanka.
Himayalas
Run 1,500 miles from east to west and separates South Asia from the rest of Asia (rugged and high)
Hindu Kush
In Northwest, smaller than the Himalayas but almost equally as rugged (Northwest border)
Eastern and Western Ghats
To the east and west in South Asia, bordering the Deccan Plateau (prevents invaders)
The Deccan Plateau
South of great plains, high and flat, many foms. (takes up most of india)
The Ganges River
Begins in Himalayas, eastward across India and joins the Brahmaputra (in Bangladesh) creates very fertile soil in delta. Most Holy River with shrines and temples thousands come to visit.
The Brahmaputra River and The Ganges/Brahmaputra River Delta
The Brahmaputra is in Bangladesh and creates large fertile soil area when it creates a delta with the Ganges, but has terrible flooding (many people's crops die)
Climate Regions within India
The monsoons control the climate, so it is wet adn dry in the Winter, in Delhi it can be up to 120 degrees Frahrenheit with no rain, but in Marth it becomes wet adn extreme.
Linking Popuation to Climate Regions
Many people cannot live in certain parts of South Asia (desert) so thereis not a lot of people in Bangladesh and many people live and struggle.
Monsoons
A seasonal wind that effects and controls the climate of South Asia, starting in may or June and is very dry. Then the rain comes, which is key in the life of the farmers because the plants wouldn't grow with out the monsoons but it can also cause too much rain and kill the crops.
Indus River and Indus River Valley Civilzation
India's first civilzation, in fertile river valley, the world's largest early civilazation.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Two cities, now in Pakistan, perfectly planned out, With straight streets formign a checkerboard pattern, and a walled fortress the city was well advanced for its time.
Characteristics of The Indus River Valley Civilization
The straight carefully laid ot sraigh, large warehouses wih sohols and disricts.
Legacies of the indus River Valley Civilization
religious beliefs, most poeple were farmers, and the city had upper and middle class, the citadel and clean water supply were offered first to upper classes.
The Aryans
nomadic and war based cuture that was the "final straw" of the decline of the Indus River Valley Civilizations. They came from central Asia and over ran the Indus Valley.
Sanskrit
Teh language the Aryans created to write down tehir oral religous traditions
The Vedas
Oral religous traditions that are still used today which stemmed fro mteh Gupta Empire
Oral Roots "ragas"
Songs, long chants, stories, ranging from 20 minutes to four hours, which is how Hinduism started.
The Rig-Veda
most ancient collection of sacred verses and hymns to various deities.
The Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita
Huge poem relating the basic Hindu ideas (One of the two sources of Indian literature)
The Upanishads
Sacred Hindu tests that explain the Vedas.
Hinduism
850,00,000 people in India are Hindu's, 1 god with three faces, 1,000,000 faces of those which are called avatars.
Brahma Vishnu, Shiva
3 basic faces of one God, creates, preserves and destroys. Destrucation is not bad because a new life is formed.
Dharma
Teh duties or obligations of each caste
Karma
The belief that every deed in one life translates to the other.
Reincarnation
Belief that the soul is reborn in different forms
Moksha
Liberation from teh cycle of birth and death
The Caste System
Social Hieracrchy based upon birth and occupation
1st Caste
Brahmans-Gurus, priests, no money, no possesions.
2nd Caste
Khashatria-warriors
3rd Caste
Vaisya-merchants
4th caste
Sudra-famers, most people in this caste, families have 6=7 children
5th caste
outcastes-jobs no one wants and gets blamed for everything
Buddhism
out growth or sister of Hinduism, belief that everyone has the power to become Buddha.
Sidhartha Gautama
man who first found Buddha within him after a long journey living with the Samanas, Monks, merchants and a ferryman.
Brahman/Atman
the peace within you
Nirvana
the highest best fufilled life (before death)
The Maurya Empire
250 BCE, 1st empire, ruled for 140 years and united the country.
raja
The king that calls all the Princes
Asoka
The first Mauyra ruler's grandson who brought the empire to the height of its power. Became a buddhist and wanted people to as well
The Gupta Empire
"the golden age" after the Mauryans ruled, Chandragupta 1 (first leader) was an evil killer, took over India and was finally assinated. Ruled in 400 AD
achievements of the Gupta Empire
Very heavy on the art, literature and math, wrote poems and books. Thier scultures set the tone for all Indian sculpture.
Muslim INvadors
In the mid 600's islam grew in the middle east and muslims came into South Asia.
The Sultans and Delhi Sultanate
Set up a capital at Delhi, making non-Muslims pay extra taxes, though they were not forced into following the ISlamic religion in 1210-1526
The Mogul Empire
After the sultan died Mongols from central asia came into India and destroyed Delhi, they enslaved the population though they did not retain power for long.
Akbar the Great
Grandson of Babur and he ruled all of India, not just the Muslim, he married a Hindu princess and made sure there was no mor taz on Hindu people. He was the "master of compromise" and brillants as a ruler.
Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
Akbar's grandson was Shah Jahana dn he hired the best architects to bulid a monument for his wife, it was for her tomb.
The Taj Mahal
The monument Shah Jahan had for his wife, it took 2 years and 20,000 artisans to build it
Portuguese Influence
IN 1498 the Portugese arrive and made trading post and then in 1505 the ortuguese slowly took control of INdia and had a monopoly over it.
British Influence
the East India Company was British forces and they forced the Indian rulers to sign treaties saying they had power.
The British East India Company
Went too India to control the Indian state, Bengal, and also other places so he slowly made important people sign treaties (traded tea)
The Sepoy Rebellion
Indian troops who were in the British army. They heard rumors that their rifles were greased with beef fat and since cows are sacred, it made them upset. They got more upset when a low was passed saying they had to fight for Britain in foreign lands, it broke out in 1857 and they fought.
The British Raj
The British colonial administration of South Asia, it lasted from 1858-1947 when British India changed to two different states.
The Massacre at Amritsar
On April 13, 1919 in Amritsar British soldiers open fired on a forbidden gathering where they killed over a thousand people.
The Struggle for Independence.
Gandhi was unhappy with the British rule so he worked towards peace and getting the British out.
Mohandas K. Gandhi
Gandhi studied law after living in a middle class Hindu family adn when he came back he thought about nonviolent resistance. All of his ideas were rooted in Hindu beliefes and from that he absorbed ideas about respect for life. (his followers called him, meanign "great soul"
Peacful, Non-Violent Resistance.
How Gandhi decided to change what happened he heled everyone see what was goign wrong and he just gave up his western ways and encouraged traditional Indian lifestyles (things like ralleys and burnings...)
India and Pakistan
The two countires were different in that India was Hindu-dominated and Pakistan had a muslim majority and soon it became a violent batle, India and Pakistan each promised religous tolerance but it didn't work and many people died.
Confilct in Kashmir
Kashmir was a principality and they could either join INdia or Pakistan or they could be independent, the ruler wanted to be still in the throne, and would join Pakistand if he could do so, though in the end they ended up joining India, causing problems with India and Pakistan.
The Creation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh came into creation in 1971 when East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan.
Sri Lanka
THe island nation was once called Ceylon but in 1972 it changed its name to Sri Lnaka. There are many ethnic problems there becasue their ancestors came to the isalnd from northern india but 18 percent came from southern india and spoke Tamil and practice Hinduism.The tensions were increased agian in the 70's because the Tamil's said teh Sinhalese discriminated against themand they wanted to seperate from them.
Languages
Hindi is the nation language but the 14 other languages are Bengali, Teluga, marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskirt.
Sikhs
A group of People that protested against their treatment by the governemtn, they want to break away as a whole religion, Islam and Hinduism.
Agricultural Prodcuts/Condiditions
The indidan people really want to increase production but the population is increasing too much so it doesn't evn our adn tehy aren't making enough to feed the population.
Improved conditions
The government set up areas for irrigation, etc. so now the people can work there all year long.
The Impact of the monsoons
The monsoons ruin the crops, because they affect how much moisture ther is, teh grought meansno crops will grow and if there is flood then they can also not grow
Industrial Growth
Now the Indian people have less dependence on imports because they are now invested in teh industry. Because it has few oil resource ithas to import oil but now with the help of Japan they can make and export cars.
Cottage industry
When the workplace is at home, it is very important to the econonmy because they make sari's, textiles and pottery.
The Computer industry
The growth of the computer industry has grown 50% in the past five years.
Trade Deficit
India was being sold more things than they were selling, resulting in debt.
Population
1,080,264,388 people
Growth
The population growth rate is 1.4%
Indias Most Pressing Concerns
Population control, diseases, aids, conflicts, food and poverty