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52 Cards in this Set

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missi domenici
officials sent out to check on roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice was done
vassal
in medieval Europe, a lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord
fief
in the Middle Ages, an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
knight
noble in Europe who served as a mounted warrior for a lord in the Middle Ages
chivalry
code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
troubadour
wandering poet in Europe in the Middle Ages
manor
during the Middle Ages in Europe, a lord's estate, which included one or more villages and the surrounding lands
serf
in medieval Europe, peasant bound to the lord's land
secular
having to do with worldly, rather than religious, matters
sacrament
sacred ritual of the Roman Catholic Church
canon law
body of laws of a church
excommunication
exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church laws
interdict
in the Roman Catholic Church, excommunication of the entire region, town, or kingdom
tithe
payment to a church equal to one tenth of a person's income
anti-Semitism
prejudice against Jews
charter
in the Middle Ages, a written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town
capital
money for investment
usury
practice of lending money at interest
guild
in the Middle Ages, association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
apprentice
young person learing a trade from a master
autocrat
ruler who has complete authority
patriach
in the Byzantine empire, highest church official in a major city
icon
holy image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church
schism
permanent division in a church
boyar
landowning noble in Russia under the czars
czar
title of the ruler of the Russian empire
ethnic group
large group of people who share the same language and cultural heritage
common law
system of law based on court decisions that became accepted legal principles--the same for all people
jury
group of men sworn to speak the truth means "sworn on oath"--make a decision in a legal case.
crusade
Innocent aided by Philip II, launched a brutal crusade, or holy war, against the Albigensians in southern France
Black Death (bubonic plague)
a disease spread by fleas on rats, spreads from Asia to Europe; one in three people die; society and economy fall apart
Hundred Years' War
English king wants to be king of France; both England and France want French land; they fight for more than 100 years; France defeats England
famine
crops fail; people starve
Five Duties of Islam
1) Faith in one God 2)Daily prayer 3)help for poor 4)visit to holy city of Mecca 5)Fast during the holy month of Ramadan
lay investiture
a practice in which the emperor or another lay person (a person who is not a member of the clergy presented, bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office
Magna Carta
rebellious barons forced King John to sign this document, which gave feudal rights that shaped government traditions in England; asserted that nobles had certain rights and that the king must obey the law, protected the legal rights of the people, and forbade the king from raising taxes without first consulting the Great Council
Concordat of Worms
Treaty that ended the investiture struggle
3 G's
God; Glory; Gold
guild
in the Middle Ages, association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
apprentice
young person learning a trade from a master
bill of exchange
A merchant deposited money with a banker in his home city. The banker issued a bill of exchange, which the merchant exchanged for cash in a distant city. A merchant could thus travel without carrying cold coins, which were easily stolen.
partnership
many merchants joined together in an organization; under this setup a group of merchants pooled their funds to finance a large-scale venture that would hav been too costly for any individual trader
insurance
For a small fee, an underwriter would insure the merchant's shipment. If the goods arrived safely , the merchant lost only the small insurance payment. If the shipment was lost or destroyed, the underwriter paid the merchant most of its value.
feudalism
loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military swevice and other support to a greater lord--made the middle clas grow
conquistador
name for the Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500s and 1600s
Mayas
Time: 300-900
Location: southern Mexico through part of Central America
Government: city-states; ruling chief for each city (sometimes women); military leaders; public officials
Way of Life: farmers; traders
Religion: powerful priests; ceremonies for harvests and war; human sacrifies
(Grew maize and other crops; Tikal was the largest city; it was filled with temples and palaces; developed a system of writing using hieroglyphics; scribes recorded their knowledge in books; developed a 365-day solar calendar and invented a numbering system).
Aztecs
Time: 1325-1521
Location: central Mexico
Government: single ruler; nobles served as officials judges, governors
Way of Life: famers, warriors, traders, slaves
Religion: worshiped many gods; sun gods most important; priests; human sacrifices
Priests recorded laws and historical events and ran schools. They had an accurate calendar. Doctors used herbs and medicines to treat illnesses and wounds and could set broken bones.
Who destroyed the Incan empire in Peru?
Francisco Pizarro in 1532
Who destroyed the Aztec empire?
Cortes in 1521
Feudal Society
King
Lords
Less Powerful Lords
Knights
Serfs
(Under feudalism, the roles of people were determined by their places in society).
Incas
Strictly controlled the lives of people within their empire; all people had to speak the Incan language, Quechua. Government officials decided what job each person should do and who each person should marry. Farmers grew food for the emperor. The government stored grain for hard times. All people in the empire had to study the Incan religion. Incas worshiped many gods. The emperor, who was considered the son of the sun, was also the religious leader.
Incan System of Roads
Hundreds of bridges; tunnels through hills; ordinary people forbidden on roads; better than Roman system of roads; over 12,000 miles of roads; messages and news passed from runer to runner; steps carved into steep slopes (The Incan system of roads was so well built that it was not equaled until modern times).