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38 Cards in this Set

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Republic
a form of government in which power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
Patricians
the wealthy landowners who held most of the power in Ancient Rome
Plebians
the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population of Ancient Rome
Tribunes
representatives who were elected by an assembly of plebians, and they protected the rights of the plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials.
Consuls
two officials who were like kings since they commanded the army and directed the government
Senate
the aristocratic branch of Rome's government that had both legislative and administrative functions in the Republic
Dictator
a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
Legions
military units that were made up of foot soldiers and soldiers on horseback, and were divided into groups of 80 men called centuries
Punic Wars
a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, and resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
Hannibal
a brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat
Julius Caesar
a military leader who ruled Rome with two other men until he defeated them
Triumvirate
a group of three leaders
Augustus
the title "exalted one" that became Octavian's name when he became an unchallenged ruler of Rome
Pax Romana
a period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to AD 180
Diaspora
the disposal of Jews from their homeland in Palestine
Constantine
the Roman emperor who was fighting three rivals for leadership of Rome in AD 312 and believed that God helped Rome win the battle, which convinced him to accept Christianity
Inflation
a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices
mercenaries
foreign soldiers that were hired to fight for money
Diocletian
a strong willed army leader
Constantinople
the city of Constantine
Attila
a powerful chieftain who united the Huns and terrorized the Roman Empire
Greco-Roman Culture
the mixing elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture
Pompeii
a Roman town which was covered by a thick layer of ash that killed many of its residents in AD 79
Virgil
the poet who wrote the famous epic called the Aenid of the legendary Aeneas
aquaducts
a pipeline or channel built by the Romans to carry water to cities
Han Dynasty
a Chinese dynasty that ruled for over 400 years, and is divided into two parts
Centralized government
a government in which the central authority controls the running of the state
civil service
government jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations
assimilation
the process of making conquered peoples part of Chinese culture
Liu Bang
the first emperor of the Han Dynasty and he established the policy of a centralized government
Xiongnu
fierce nomads known for their deadly archery skills from horseback
Han Wudi
the emperor of China who ruled from 141 to 87 BC and was called the Martial Emperor because he adopted the policy of expanding the empire through warfare
Confucian bureaucracy
the Chinese government that included 18 different ranks of civil service jobs which were obtained by taking exams that tested Confucianism ideas
Sima Qian
lived from 145 to 85 BC and was called the Grand Historian for his work in compiling history of China from the ancient Dynasties to Wudi
Records of the Grand Historian
a book of Chinese history written by Sima Qian
History of the Former Han Dynasty
a book of China's history written by Ban Biao
Wang Mang
a Confucian scholar and member of the court and took the imperial title for himself and ended the Former Han Dynasty
Silk Roads
caravan trails that crossed Asia where valuable trade goods were carried