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51 Cards in this Set

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What are the three geographic subregions of the Pacific Islands?
Melanesia
Mironesia
Polynesia
What is the difference between a reef and an atoll?
A reef forms at the edges of a volcanic island . When the volcanic island sinks and forms a ring on top, the ring is the atoll. So the reef is around the island, and the top part is the atoll - see pic in page 732
How might the destruction of the world’s coral reefs affect the biological diversity of the oceans?
-25% of all species in the ocean live on coral reefs.
- CRs provide food and shelter for them, so if the CRs are destroyed the entire food chain is affected
What is the ITCZ? How does it affect the islands of the Pacific?
ITCZ - Intertropical Convergeance Zone - formed when the NE trade winds and SE trade winds converge (meet)
- calm humid weather at low elevations BUT harsh weather at high elevations ->where heavy rain falls form as cool air rises - causes typhoons and bad weather in the oceans..
What are the main natural resources of the Pacific islands?
- FISH and shelffish
- PEARLS that come from oysters
- TIMBER (wood) - in Papa New Guinea
- metals in some areas: gold, copper deposits
Where did the first settlers of the Pacific islands come from?
SE Asia -

some from AUstralia Aborigenes
Which European countries were interested in colonizing the Pacific islands? Why?
Spanish, Dutch, English .French, Germans, etc

Came to explore, trade, spread christianity and most importantly claim new land for their countries
When did most of the Pacific islands nations receive independence?
since the end of WWII
What six foreign countries still have territories in the Pacific today?
US, Australia, Chile, Frane, UK, New Zealand
What are pidgin languages?
- a language developed by the island people
- a simpler language for them
- based on English language
European Arrival:
wait
Education:
-all kids study through High School in Micro and Poly
- schools not available to all kids in Melanesia
- some universities - in English (mainly)
Religion:
-early on belived in MANY gods and goddesses
- today mainly christianity
Food:
-before europeans came:
3 root crops: yams, sweet potatoes and caro
-3 tree crops: bananas, breadruit and coconut
- fish is main source of protein

today - canned meat, and boxed stuff is part of their diet too
Traditional Societies:
historically - used to be organized into clans ad tribes
- inherited statuses
-Micronesia was matrilineal - importance placed throug the mother
POPULATION AND MIGRATION:
OVERALL POPULATION IS LOW but some of the islands are very crowded
-papa new guinea - largest city
- very high birth rate (growing population)
- lots os travel andmove between the islands and to Australia andNew Zealand
- BUt it's ususally young working people that move away - which is not good for them
missionaries –
people whose goals are to srpead their religion to other areas
- Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries spread their relgioin to this area when they colonized it.
phosphates
- a mineral found and mined in the tiny island of Nauru which has given them lots of $ but has left the island in a total waste (an environmental hazard)
- used to make fertilizers
trust territories –
- areas placed under control of another country until they were ready for Independence
- at the end f WW2, the United Nations placed many of the Pacif Islands under trust territories with other countries.;
What are the main physical features of the Pacific Islands, and what physical processes affect them?
- have volcanoes which has soils very rich.
- have rain forest (only high islands)
- elevation
- but there are many earthquakes and tsunamis.
ALL SURROUNDED BY THE LARGEST NATURAL feature of EARTH- the Pacific Ocean
How is the Pacific Islands region divided into sub regions?
there are threee regiong
-melanisia
-micronesia
- polynesia
What climate, biomes, and recources does the region have?
-hot with high rainfall
-Highland climates
-distinct wet and dry seasons
-rainforest
What are the the characteristics of high islands?
mountanious, rocky, and volcanoes
- very fertile land b/c volcanic soil is fertile
- rainforests
-- more water
What are the the characteristics of low islands?
-form from coral
- small and flat
- formed from volcanic mountains that formed on the ocean floor
- usually ring shaped (atoll)
atoll
a ring shaped coral island or a ring of several islands liked by underwater coral reefs.
Coarl reefs
made up of millions of tiny little skeletons from dead animals.
Mariana trench
the deepest trench in the ocean.
- located next to GUAM
-1580 miles deep
Melanesia
-closest to australia
- have many mountains
- many volcanoes.
Micronesia
- has mixes of high and low islands
Polynesia
- largest of the three regions
- its is sshaped in a triangle.
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
a zone where prevailing winds meet and creates calm winds and humid air.
What are the economies of the pacific region like?
- lots of trade through thw whole region - needed to spread the resources
-tourism, mining, and fishinng are big things.
- cash crops-coconuts, sugar cane, copra, pineapples, bananas, palm oil.

- POOR COUNTRY - bc not many natural resources so it has to import mostly evertyhing; not many exports
copra
dred coconut meat
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
zones that stretch 200 miles from the coast of their island.
- for any business trade done within this zone, the government gets to claim some $ (like a tax). this helps pay for things in the islands
-. this is how they raise money fromthe foreign companies that come to fish there.
migration and population today in the region
-Small populations; much migration to Australia, NZ
-Few large cities
-Rapid urban growth late 1900’s
-High birth rates; low death rates
The challenges
- Shortage of skilled labor; young adults move to bigger cities
-Rapid population growth; high birth rates/low death rate
-Environment destruction; Global warming; nuclear testing, soil excursion, deforestation, over fishing, strip mining
-Political violence due to ethnic religions.
What are some important events in the history of the region?
-migration
-the europeans arriving at the pacific islands.
- World war II
- independence in the pacific region.
What are the traditions and culture of the region like?
-English ad French are the laguages mostly spoken.
-many people are different.
-eat sweet crops, taro and yams.
- Christianity is the main religion.
migration patterns
- over the years people have spread into their own island groups.
-over time people in polynesia and micronesia had their own features so they seperated.
Who ame to explore the pacific island in the 1500's?
the europeans.
What happened after the europeans arrived at the pacific islands?
united states, Germany, and Japan started coming also.
Why did many islands start becoming battlefields and bases?
because of World War II.
Who was in World War II?
Japan vs. United states
- the United States won.
independence
many islads in the Pacific region became idependent.
pidgin laguages.
simplified languges made for people who speak different laguages and try to learn a ew one.
education
- most people get education in the highschool level.
- only in polynesia and micronesia.
- schools not ready for melanisia.
Religion
Christianity is the main religio in the pacific region.
Food
-three major root crops are sweet potatoes, yams, and taros.
- three major tree crops are banaas, breadfruit, ad coconut.
- also lots of rice.
Traditions
there are may tribes with chiefs and ranks.
matrilineal
when a husband gets married with a wife and he becomes part of the wife clan instead of vise versa.
What physical proceses have affected the Pacific Island region?
Pacific Island Region is the site of ACTIVE tectoni processes.
-lots of volcanoes
-earthquakes are common
- have also shaped the ocean floor - trenches
- volcanic chains
- ocean ridges and trenches