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74 Cards in this Set

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scientists who learn about early people by excavating and studying the traces of early settlements
archeological dig
an excavated site that provides one of the richest sources of clues to the prehistoric way of life
remains, such as tools, kewelry, and other human0made objects.
what might artifacts hint?"
how people dressed, what work they did, or how they worshipped
scientists that study culture
people's unique way of life
scientists that study fossils
evidence of early life preserved in rocks
what mary leaky found
she found prehistoric footprints that resembled those of modern humans in a region of Laetoli in Tanzania, an east african nation. the footprits were made by australopithecines, a hominid
humans and other creatures that walk upright
what evidence did the laetoli footprints provide about the origins of humans?
1) that at least 3,600,000 years aho, man's direct ancestor walked upright
2. the form of the foot was exactly the same as ours
what dd donald johanson find?
1000 miles north of mary leaky, in ethiopia, he found an unusually complete skeleton of an adult female hominid. she had lived around 3.5 million years ago--the oldest hominid found to date--and is nicknamed lucy
what species of hominid was lucy?
what were advantages of walking upright?
helped them travel distances more easily, and were able to spot threatening animals and carry food and children
what was the importance of the opposable thumb?
the tip of the thumb could cross the palm of the hand, crucial for tasks such as picking up smalll objects and making tools
how long did the Paleolithic Age last?
from 2.5 million to 8000 BC
what were some achievemnets during this period?
mastery over fire, invention of tools, and development of language
how long did the neolithic age last?
from 8000 bc to 3000 bc
what were some achievements of the neolithic age?
learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals
during what period of earth's history did the paleolithic age take place?
the ice age
what did mary leaky and her husband discover in 1960?
a hominid fossil in Northern tanzania. they named is "homo habilis", which means man of skill. they found tools made of lava rock, which they believed homo habilis used to cut meet and crack open bones
homo erectus
"upright man"
when did homo erectus appear?
about 1.6 million years ago
what were some of the homo erectus achievemments?
they were more intelligent tan homo habilis
they used their intelligence to develop technology
-they used tools to make survival easier
-they became skillful hunters and invnted more sophisticated tools
0they became the first hominids to migrate, from africa to india, china, southeast asia, and europe
-they were the first to use fire
-they might have developed the beginning of the spoken language
homo sapiens
species name for modern humans-means "wise men"
-lived between 200,000 and 30,000 years ago
-tried to explain and control their world
-created religious beliefs and performed rituals, like funerals
-appeared about 40,000 years ago
-skeleton remains show they are directly related to humans
-they planned their hunts, which helped them survive more easily
-created art
what group had a gift of musical expression and how do we no?
neanderthals-a flute was found
wander from place to place rather than making permanent settlements, searching for new sources of food
nomadic groups whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods
how did bands such as cro-magnons increase their food supply?
they invented tools using stone, bone, and wood to make spears, knives, fish hooks, bone needles to sew clothing, and cutters to make other tools
what kind of art what there in the paleolithic age?
necklaces of seashells, lion teeth, and bear claws, realistic sculptures, paintings on the walls of caves in europe
describe the cave paintings
painted with colored paints made from charcoal, mud, and animal blood in europe--drew pictures of wild animals
in africa-early artists engraved pictures or painted scenes
what was hunter-gatherer life like before the neolithic revolution?
humans survived by hunting game and gathering edible plants. they lived in bands of no more than 2 to 3 dozen people, men hunted and women fathered
what is the neolitihic revolution?
the agricultural revolution-the far-reaching changes in human life resulting from the beginning of farming
change from food-gathering to food-producing
how did the neolithic revolution come about?
about 10,000 years ago, women may have scattered some seeds near a regular campsite, and when they returned the next season, they found new crops growing
what were possible causes of the agricultural revolution?
1. change in climate-rising temps. worldwide provided longer growing seasons and drier land for cultivating wild grasses
-rich supply of grain helped produce small population boom, and hunter-gatheres felt pressure to find new food sources
slash and burn farming
groups would cut trees or crasses and burn them to clear a field-the remaining ashes fertilized the soil. farmers planted crops for a year or two. they moved on to another area of land and after several years, the trees and grass grew back, and other farmers repeated the process
domestication of animals
the taming of animals
how did domestication come about?
stone age hunters may have driven herds of animals into rockey ravins to be slaughtered-then they drove them into human made enclosures. from there, farmers could heep the animals as a constant source of food and gradually tame them
what was the first established agricultural settlement?
in jarmo, present day irag, about 9000 years ago
farming in africa
the bile river valley developed into an important agricultural center for growing wheat, barely, and other crops
farming in china
about 8000 years ago, farmers along the middle stretches of the huanf He cultivated a grain called millet. about 1000 years later, neolithic farmers first domesticated wild rice in the chang jiang river delta
mexico and central america farming
farmers cultivated corn, beans, and squash
peru farming
farmers in the central andes were the first to grow tomatoes, sweet potatoes, and white potatoes
life in agricultural village catal huyuk`
farmers produced large crops of wheat, barely, and peas
villagers raised sheep and cattle
at its peak it was home to about 6000 people
had wall paintings and religious shrines
what were drawbacks of settled life
floods, fire, drought, and other natural disasters could destroy a village
disease spread easily among people living close together
they could get attacked by nomads or jealous neighbors
how did ancient people cultivate more land and produce extra crops?
building an elaborate irrigation system
what did the food surpluses from irrigation result in?
it freed some villagers to pursue other kobs and develop skills besides farming--specialization
what did specialization result in?
individuals who learned to become craftspeople created valuable new products, such as pottery, metal objects, and woven cloth, in turn, people who became traders profitited from a broader range of goods to exvhange.
what two inventions helped to transport more goods over longer distances?
the wheel and the sail
how did a more prosperous economy affect the social structure of village life?
social classes with varying wealth, power, and influence began to emerge.
how did religious beliefs change from the paleolithic age to the neolithic age?
paleolithic age-peoples religious beliefts centered around nature, animal spirits, and some idea of an afterlife
neolithic age-farming peoples worshiped the many gods and goddeses who they believed had power over the rain, wind, and other forces of nature.
a complex culture with these 5 characteristics: 1) advanced cities 2) specialized workers 3) complex institutions 4) record keeping 5) advanced technology
birthplaces of the first civilizations-a large group of people living together that is the center of trade for a large area
skilled workers who make goods by hand
long-lasting pattern of organization in a community
examples of complex institutions
government, religion, and the economy
government in cities
soaring populations of early cities made government, or a system of ruling, necessary. in civilizations, leaders emerged to maintain order among people and to establish laws
religion in cities
most cities had great temples where dozens of priests took charge of religious duties.
sumerians religiion
sumerians believed that every city belonged to a god who lived in the temple and governed the city's activities. the temple became the hub of both governmnet and religious affairs, serving as the city's economic center
why was record keeping important?
government officials had to document tax collections, the passage of laws, and the storage of grain. priests needed some way to keep track of the yearly calendar and imporant rituals. merchants had to record accounts of debts and payments
professional record keepers
a system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols-invented by sumerian scribes
scribes tool-a sharpened reed with a wedge-shaped point, pressed into most clay to create symbols. the clay tablets were baked in the sun to be preserved
what else besides record keeping did people use writing for?
they wrote about their cities' dramatic events, wrs, natural disasters, the reign of kings.
bronze age
sumerian metalworkers discovered that melting together certain amounts of copper and tin made bronze. after 2500 bc skilled metalworkers in sumer's cities turned out bronze spearheads by the thousands. this age started in sumer in about 3000 bc and refers to the time when people began using bronze, rather than copper and stone, to fashion tools and weapons
one of the earliest cities in Sumer that stood on the banks of the Euphrates river
the way of trading goods and services without money--merchants and their customers know roughly how much of something is worth for something else
a pyramid-shaped monument which means "mountain of god"--temple is surrounded by a heavy wall--where priests conduct rituals to worship the city god who looms over ur. every day, priests make offering to the city's gods
the father's last name is passed down
society in which men hold the power
the eldest son inherits everything from his father
arranged marriages for daughters