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46 Cards in this Set

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Most of the philosophes believed that for change to happen in Europe,
Royal and Catholic authority most cahnge
Maria Theresa
Enlightened Despot in Austria; also fell short of many goals to improve everyday life.
Each of the following were key changes Napoleon made in France except:
~religous tolerance
~the establishment of a national bank.
~the election of Maximilien Robespierre for sainthood.
the election of Maximilien Robespierre for sainthood.
Limited Monarcy
System of government in which the king's powers are not absolute but specifically guided by a constitution or leglislative body; the monarch's power is reduced.
Maximilen Robespierre
Leader of the Jacobins who led France during the Reign of Terror; assumed power through use of terrorism
Thomas Hobbes
Believed that all men are by mature evul and selfish; the best type of government to deal with this problem is an absolute monarchy.
Guillotine
A machine that dropped a huge blade to chop off the head of a criminal
National Assembly
New law making body created by the Third Estate in September 1789 (eventually becomes Legislative Assembly, then Natipnal Convention)
Revolutionaries
Members of the Third Estate creating changes during the French revolution
Denis Diderot
Created the encyclopedia, a volume of books highlightingenlightened thinkingduring the 18th century.
Terrorism
The systematic use of fear and violence as a way to achieve political and social goals
Sans-culottes
Angry lower class workers in France; part of Third Estate; also known as Parisian mob.
Reign of Terror
Period during the French Revolution that marked the use of fear and violence to control people suspected of teason
Louis XVI
King of France last of the Bourbon excuted during the French Revolution in 1792
Another name for a governing concil, particularly in Latin America, is
Junta
Catherine the Great
Enlightened despot in Russia; greatest regret was not having done enough for Russian peasants.
The idea that free market activity should be left alone by government is an example of what economic theory?
Laissez-faire
Third Estate
Majority of French population 98%- included peasants, bourgeosie, and lower-class workers in Paris (sans- culottes, or mob)
The largest peasant rebellion in Russian history, which limited Catherine the Great's ability to improve the lives of the peasantry. What was the name of this event?
Pugachev Rebellion
Philosophes
A group of French thinkers during the enlightenment; philosophers using reason to explain issues regarding the human condition.
Which body of government was not called for over 150 years before the French Revolution?
Estates General
First Estate
Members of the clergy- approximately 1% of the population.
Old Regime
The old form of government (France = absolute monarchy)
Baron de Montesquieu
Supported the separation of powers in government to prevent the abuse of power.
Tories
Political party in England supportive of the king's rule.
Frederick the Great
Enlightened despot in Prussia; did little to improve the lives of most in Prussia.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Believed that a social contract, or agreement, exists between government and the people it protects, and the government only exists by the will of the people.
Parliment
Representative body of government in England
Radicals
People who favored quick and major changes to society - Jacobins
First Continetal Congress
Announcements to England that the colonies were in dfependent and free of British rule; ideas behind Declaration are directlt linked to the ideas of the french philosophes.
Pragmatism
The attempt to try to please opposing parties in an effort to maintain peace.
Tenis Couirt Oath
Promise by the Third Estate to create a Constitution and form a new government (June 1789)
"No taxation without representation"
Main complaint of American colonists in 1775 to developea list of complaints for King Georg III; George ignores complaints about taxes and representation, leading to Declaration of Independence and Revolutionary War
John Locke
Believed that government was formed to protect three basic human rights; life, liberty and property
Whigs
Political party in England in favor of establishing Parliment as most powerful
Estates General
Lawmaking body in france before the French Revolution
Second Estate
French Nobilty- approximately1% of population- no responsibilty to pay taxes
Bastille
A fortress jail in France, whose fall on July 14, 1789, marked the beginning of the French Revolution
Bourgeoisie
Educated town people familiar with the philosophes' ideas
Treaty Of Paris
Settlement of Revolutionary War (1783)
Joseph II
Enlightened despot in Austria;son of Maria Theresa; most successful of enlightened despots in bringing reform to peasantry.
Enlightened Despot
An absolute ruler who uses their power for the good of their subjects.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement by the third Estate aboute the ideals of the french revolution; established human rights and freedoms as central concern of government (August 1789)
Marie Antoinette
wife of Louis XVI; Queen of France
Constitutional Monarchy
System of government in which king's or queen's powers are limited or defined by the legislature; the monarch's power is reduced.
Moderates
People who wished to keep change slow and work with the king - Girondins