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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Space Race
Term given to the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War to advance their space programs.
Space Shuttle
A reusable space vehicle built by the United States.
Spanish Armada
A loarge flotilla of ships sent by Philip II of Spain to attack England in 1588 necause of the Reformation. The ship was destroyed by poor weather and the English Navy.
Spanish-American War
(1898) A wat between the US and Spain over the control of Cuba. The US won this war and gained independence for Cuba, and control of the Philippines.
Spheres of Influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading preivileges to each imperialist nation within its repective sphere.
Spinng Jenny
A device used to make thread.
Spinning Wheel
A device used to make thread by spinning fibers together through the use of a big wheel.
The Spirit of the Laws
A book written by Baron de Montesquieu describing his theories on government. He states that government should divid itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive Branch. Montesquiee explained that under this system each branch would Check and Balance the others, which would help protect the people's liberty.
Soviet satellite put into orbit around the Earth in 1957. It was the first man made satellite put into orbit.
A situation where there are no clear winners.
Josef Stalin
The General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922 to 1953. Known for his brutality in dealing with opponents and his failed policies of collectivism that caused widespread famine across the Soviet Union.
The process of dying due to lack of food.
Stock Market Crash
The steep fall in the prices of stocks due to widespread financial panic. It was caused by stock brokers who called in the loans they had made to stock investors. This caused stock prices to fall, and many people lost their entire life savings as many financial institutions went bankrupt.
Stock Holder
A person holding ownership of part of a company or business venture.
A Buddhust shrine or temple in India. This form of architecture made its way to China where it was altered slightly and renamed the pagoda.
Large area that is separate part of a continent. The area encompassing India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh are considered to be a subcontinent of Asia.
To serve under another person. Unequal
Suez Canal
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Suez War of 1956
War between Israel and Egypt which resulted in Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula.
The right to vote in elections.
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and considered to be their greatest ruler. Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its greatest hieght.
Sun Yixian
Chinese nationalist leader who fought to the end foreign domination. He formed the Koumintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yat-Sen.
Term given to the US and USSR during the Cold War.
The mdeical treatment of a body which involves cutting open to perform various manipulations.
Taiping Rebellion
A Revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of thier failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
The collection of Jewish writings that is the basis of Jewish religious law.
The Chinese philosophy developed in the later part of the Chou Dynasty, during the period of turmoil in which it was not clear that Chinese civilization would survive.
Collected teachings of Chinese philosopher Lao Tze, the founder of Taoism.
A tax on imports.
Tea Ceremony
A Japanese ritual in which tea is prepared, served, and drunk in a certain way.
A society's practical knowledge, expecially with refernce to its material culture and modes of production.
A device used to see distant objects, such as those in space.
10 Commandments
The ten laws given to Moses by God.
Terrace Farming
The cutting out of flat areas into near verticle slopes to allow farming. Appear like steps on a mountainside.
The use of violence for political purposes.
Emperor of the Roman Empire who is responsible for making the Christiam religion the officia religion of the empire.
Theory of Relativity
Theory of motion and energy developed by Albert Einstein in the 20th Century.
Tiananmen Square Massacre
A political and social protest by university students in Beijing, China in 1989. The protest called for political and social reforms and resulted in the government using the military to end it, which caused hundreds of deaths, thousands injured, and many more imprisoned.
Three Gorges Dam
A dam across the Yangtze River in China scheduled to be completed in 2009.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responsible for closing Jpan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Meiji Restoration.
The holy book of Jadaism. It describes the creation of the world, the history of anciet Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophrtic books.
The red gateway entrance to a Shinto shrine.
Totalitarian State
A state or country completely comtrolled by a single power, such as a monarch or dictator.
An ideology where all social, economic,and political powers are centered in the government completely.
The exchange of goods or service between people.
Trade Fair
A gathering of merchants, craftsmen, and artisans to buy and sell goods and service during the late Middle Ages.
A long-established custom or belief.
Traditional Economy
An economy based on agriculture, with others in society working in simple crafts, such as the manufacturing of cloth of pottery.
Treaty of Nanjing
An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the opium War. The treaty stated that China were forced to open several ports to Britich trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China.
Treaty of Portsmouth
The treaty that ended the Shino-Japanese War. It granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
Treaty of Tordesillas
A treaty dividing the New World possessions netween Portugal and Spain. This treaty, signed in 1494 was a product of the Catholic Church.
Trench Warfare
A form of combat where armies fight each other from opposing fortified positions, usually consisting of long, dugout holed or trenches.
Triangle Trade
A catch all phrase for the trade occurring between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Trade goods include raw materials from the Americas, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves from Africa.
Feelings of loyalty to indiviual tribes, and the cause of much war and strife in modern Africa.
The collection of religious writings by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddah.
Triple All iance
An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during WWI
Triple Entente
An alliance thar was made up of France, Russia, and Great Britain during WWI.
Truman Doctrine
A policy of the Truman presidency that called for supporting any nation resisting communism.
Jethro Tull
British farmer and inventor, created the mechanical seed drill to aid in planting.
Two Treaties of Government
AKA The Three Baskets of Wisdom, a book written by John Locke describing his views on government which explaied that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights. Basis of modern democracies.
Unequal Treaty
A treaty forced upon a country being dominated by another during imperialism. These often gave the imperialistic nation the ability to do whatever they needeed to do in pursuit of profit.
United Nations
An international nody composed of many countried that seeks to promote peace, prosperity, and cooperation around the world. Formed post WWII.
UN Children's Fund (UNICEF)
An organization within the UN that works to provide food, clothing, and other assistance to children in need around the world.
US Constitution
Document creating the US government. Based on Enlightenment ideas.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A document published by the UN stating that all people had certain basic rights including life, liberty, equality, justice, and self determination.
Members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work tat is deemed unclean for all other Hindus us reserved for these Outcasts. Abolished when India became free from Great Britain.
Hindu holy book from the 8th century BCE.
The movement of people to Urban areas in serach of work.
A prevenion treatment containing weakened microbes of the kind of disease one is guarding against. It is administered to stimulate the immune system against that disease.
A person owin service to feudal lord.
A Hindu holy book which is a collection og Aryans hymns that were transmitted orally before being written down in the 6th century BCE.
Venice and Florence
Italians City-States which were the center of the reborth of European trade and culture at the end of the Middle Ages.
Victor Emmanuel
King of Sardinia who united Italy until his death. His support of the unification movement was vital to its success.
Viet Cong
The name of the Vietnamese communist who fouhgt against South Vietnam and the US during the Vietnam War.
Vietnam Conflict/War
A war in the coutry of Vietname, first between the French and Vietnamese, as France was attempting to hold onto its colny. The second war was between the US and the communist forces of North Vietnam, as the US tried to keep the South free from communism. North Vietnamese won.
Hindu god called the Preserver. He is the second member of the triad that includes Brahma the Creator and Shiva the Destroyer.
The use of force to injure someone or to damage something.
French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the sorruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Otto Von Bismark
Appointed Prussian chancellor in 1862. He begain a program of war to unify all the German states under the control of Prussia. His policy was known as "Blut und Eisen". He was the most powerful statesman in Europe as chancellor of the new German Empire. Known as the Iron Chancellor.
The act of choosing something or someone.
Lech Walesa
Polish labor union leader, Nobel laureate, and President of Poland. He was instrumental in the collapse of communism in Poland and throughout Eastern Europe through the work of the labor union Solidarity.
Robert Walpole
British statesman, and first Prime Minister.
Warsaw Pact
An international defence alliance between the USSR and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO.
James Watt
Improved upon Newcomen's steam engine. His new steam engine was the power source of the Industrial Revolution.
Wealth of Nations
British philosopher and write Adam Smith's book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laizzes-faire economics.
To adopt western ideas and culture.
Wheel of Life
An important symbol if Buddhism. It represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation.
The White Man's Burden
A racial poen written about Rudyard Kipling about social supiority of the white men.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution, rulingas limited monarchs.
Woodrow Wilson
president of the US during WWI. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles. He also proposed a regulating body of nations to avoid future conflicts through diplomacy in his 14 Point Speech.
Working Class
Lowest class in most social class systems, including factory workers, miners, and others.
World Bank Group
A vast financial resource owned and controlled by its membership over 180 countries. It's purpose was to provide loans and economic advice to its member countries.
World Health Organizations (WHO)
An organization attached to the UN that is concerend iwth the health and well being of all people. the organization works in developing nations to curb disease and toher health related problems.
European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the US defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
A war fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers.
Orville Wright
American inventor. He is best known for his work with his brother Wilbur in the development of the airplane.
Wilbur Wright
American inventor. He is best known for his work with his brother Orville in the development of the airplane.
Boris Yeltsin
President of Russia. He was elected beofr ethe breakup of the USSR. Instrumental in keeping a cout d'etat from occurring which would have returned hard line communists power in Russia.
Yin and Yang
Symbol used to illustrate the natural harmony that exists in the world. Everything must have an opposing force that allows the harmonious universe to exist.
Yom Kippur War
War between Israel and Egypt and Syria in which Israel defeated the two capturing land from each.
Young Italy
Nationalistic movement that wanted to end foreign control of Italy. Founded by Guiseppe Mazzini.
Zen Buddhism
A blending of Buddhism from India with Taoism from China. It is predominately practiced in China and Japan.
Zheng He
Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine. This movement began in the late 1800's, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified in Europe.
A trade union among other German states formed by Prussia in the 1930's.
The biological study of animals.
The name of a tribe of South Africa people who live in the northern part of Natal. Dominant tribe in the 19th century. Resisted the Boers and the British, but ultimately were defeated.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending WWI. Extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all the the blame of the war. It was a major cause of WWII.