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90 Cards in this Set

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statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true consistently
law
an organisms ability to keep the proper conditions inside no matter what is going on outside
homeostasis
the idea that living things come from nonliving things
spontaneous generation
the theory that living things come from other living things (replaced spontaneous generation)
biogenesis
evolutionary history of an organism
phlylogeny
first and largest category used to classify organisms
kingdom
two-word naming system Linnaeus used to name various species (acer rubum = red maple)
binomial nomenclature
first word in binomial nomenclature; group of smaller species
genus
detailed list of characteristics with binomial nomenclature to help identify animals
dichotomus keys
plant-cell organelle; uses light energy to produce sugar from C02 and water
chloroplast
releases energy in food
mitochondria
sort proteins and other substances and pacakge them in vesicles to deliver to parts of cell
golgi bodies
store water, waste products, food, and others
vacuoles
garbage men of cells (break down stuff)
lysosomes
eyepiece lens power- 10x
objective lens power- 43x
total magnification?
430x
strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating
virus
combo of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties (marbles and sand)
mixture
mixture where two or more substances are spread out evenly
solution
what's the matter? EVERYTHING!
what's matter made of?
atoms
something made of only one kind of atom
element (periodic table)
something made up of two or more elements in exact proportions
compounds
group of atoms held together by the energy of chemical bonds
molecule
when an atom gains or loses an elctron
ion
ions of opposite charges attract to form...
ionic compounds
always contain carbon and hydrogen and are associated with living things
organic compounds
proteins called _______ regulate nearly all chemical reactions in cells
_______ = enzymes
1) movement of substances through the cell membrane w/o input of energy = ?
2) movement of substances through cell membrane with input of energy = ?
1) passive transport
2) active transport
movement of molecules from an area where there is more to an area where there is less (passive)
diffusion
when molecule number in two areas is equal
equilibrium
1) taking substances into cell by surrounding it with cell membrane = ?
2) when contents of a vesicle are released by process of...
1) endocytosis
2) exocytosis
the total of all chemical reactions in an organism
metabolism
when chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules and realse their stored energy
respiration
when cells do not have enough oxygen for respiration, they release some energy stored in glucose molecules in a process called...
fermentation
when plants use light energy to produce sugar from CO2 and water and give off oxygen
photosynthesis
when nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
mitosis
structure in nucleus that contains hereditary material
chromosome
IPMAT=...
(and explain cytokinesis)
Interphase- chromosomes duplicate
Prophase-chromatid pairs visible, spindle fibers form
Metaphase- pairs lined up in center of cell
Anaphase- chromosomes separate
Telephase- cytoplasm begins to split
Cytokenesis- when cell actually schisms = ]
organism whose cells do not contain a nucleus copies its genetic material and then divides into 2 identical organisms
fission
1) when body cells have pairs of similar chromosomes
2) when sex cells do not have pairs of chromosomes (have HAlf number as body cells)
1) diploid
2) haploid
process that produces 4 haploid sex cells from one diploid cell; ensures offspring will have sam # of chromosomes as parents
meiosis
genetic material of all organisms; made up of 2 twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
DNA
section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
gene
type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from nucleus to ribosomes
RNA
1) passing of traits from parent to offspring
2)study of how traits are inherited
1) heredity
2) genetics
Who cross-bred two pea plants and did a million other observations to study genetics?
Mr. Gregor Mendel
1) genotype
2) phenotype
1) genetic makeup (TT, Tt)
2) how organism is as a result of genotype (Tall, Mixed)
1) TT
2) Tt
1) homozygous
2) heterozygous
red + white = pink, not red
incomplete dominance
when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce a trait
polygenic inheritance
methods to change the arrangement of a gene's DNA to imrpove crop production, produce medicine, and change cells normal tasks
genetic engineering
any variation that makes an organism better suited to its environment
adaptation
formed when layers of sand, silt, clay, or mud are compacted and cemented together
sedimentary rock
1) look at the layers above and below the rock and guestimate the ages
2) comparing the amount of radioactive element w/ nonradioactive element in rock
1) relative dating
2) radiometric dating
gives off a steady amount of radiation as it slowly changes to a nonradioactive element
radioactive element
body parts similar in origina and structure are called...
homologous
structures that don't seem to have a function
vestigial structures
HOMONIDS (in order):
1. Australopithecus
2. Homo Habilis
3. Homo Erectus
4. Homo Sapiens (Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons)
substances in food that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
nutrients
large molecules that contain carbon, hyrdorgen, ozygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
proteins
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
main sources of energy for body
carbohydrates
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
fat
organic nutrients needed in small amounts for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing diseases
vitamins
inorganic nutrients that lack carbon and regulate many chem. reactions in body
minerals
waves of contractions that move food through entire digestive tract
peristalsis
thin, watery liquid in stomach that moves into small intestine
chyme
most digestion takes place in...
duodenum
chyme enters 1) ________ and 2) ____, a greenish fluid from the liver, is added. food is absorbed in 3)_____ intestine, with many small fingerlike things called 4) _____ on the side. remaining undigested food goes on to 5)_____ intestine. excess water is absorbed, undigested material becomes more solid and is released.
1. duodenum
2. bile
3. small
4. villi
5. large
3 types of circulation:
1. to and from tissues of heart
2. heart. lungs. heart
3. oxygen-rich blood moves to all organs and body tissues
1. coronary circulation
2. pulmonary circulation
3. systemic circulation
Atherosclerosis-
Hypertension-
clogged artery
high blood pressure
Parts of Blood
plasma- liquid part of blood
red blood cells- contain hemoglobin (carries O2 and CO2)
white blood cells- fight invaders
platelets- clot blood
Universal Donor=
Universal Reciever=
O (Brian)
AB (Emma)
exces tissue fluid that diffues into lymphatic capillaries
lymph
type of white blood cell in lymph
lymphocyte
bean-shaped organs that filter out microorganisms and foreign materials that have been picked up by lymphocytes
lymph nodes
tubelike passageway for food, water, and air
pharynx
airway to which vocal cords are attached
larynx
tube lined with mucous membranes and cilia
trachea
two short tubes at lower end of trachea
bronchi
clusters of tiny, thin-walled sacs at the end of each bronchiole
alveoli
when alveoli in lungs enlarge
emphysema
when shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing occurs
asthma
tiny filtering units in kidneys
nephrons
ureters lead from 1. ______ to 2. _______ and urethra from 3. _______ to 4. _______
1. kidney
2. bladder
3. bladder
4. outside
thin membrane filled with clear liquid which acs as a cusion for embryo
amniotic sac
sorted and layered glacial deposit formed when heaviest sediments drop out first
outwash
zone of rapid temperature change in ocean water
thermocline
force caused by earth's rotation that makes earths winds and currents bend and curve
Cariolis force
surface current that flows in circular pattern
gyre
pattern of tides where there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides each day
semidiurnal