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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true consistently
an organisms ability to keep the proper conditions inside no matter what is going on outside
the idea that living things come from nonliving things
spontaneous generation
the theory that living things come from other living things (replaced spontaneous generation)
evolutionary history of an organism
first and largest category used to classify organisms
two-word naming system Linnaeus used to name various species (acer rubum = red maple)
binomial nomenclature
first word in binomial nomenclature; group of smaller species
detailed list of characteristics with binomial nomenclature to help identify animals
dichotomus keys
plant-cell organelle; uses light energy to produce sugar from C02 and water
releases energy in food
sort proteins and other substances and pacakge them in vesicles to deliver to parts of cell
golgi bodies
store water, waste products, food, and others
garbage men of cells (break down stuff)
eyepiece lens power- 10x
objective lens power- 43x
total magnification?
strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating
combo of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties (marbles and sand)
mixture where two or more substances are spread out evenly
what's the matter? EVERYTHING!
what's matter made of?
something made of only one kind of atom
element (periodic table)
something made up of two or more elements in exact proportions
group of atoms held together by the energy of chemical bonds
when an atom gains or loses an elctron
ions of opposite charges attract to form...
ionic compounds
always contain carbon and hydrogen and are associated with living things
organic compounds
proteins called _______ regulate nearly all chemical reactions in cells
_______ = enzymes
1) movement of substances through the cell membrane w/o input of energy = ?
2) movement of substances through cell membrane with input of energy = ?
1) passive transport
2) active transport
movement of molecules from an area where there is more to an area where there is less (passive)
when molecule number in two areas is equal
1) taking substances into cell by surrounding it with cell membrane = ?
2) when contents of a vesicle are released by process of...
1) endocytosis
2) exocytosis
the total of all chemical reactions in an organism
when chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules and realse their stored energy
when cells do not have enough oxygen for respiration, they release some energy stored in glucose molecules in a process called...
when plants use light energy to produce sugar from CO2 and water and give off oxygen
when nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
structure in nucleus that contains hereditary material
(and explain cytokinesis)
Interphase- chromosomes duplicate
Prophase-chromatid pairs visible, spindle fibers form
Metaphase- pairs lined up in center of cell
Anaphase- chromosomes separate
Telephase- cytoplasm begins to split
Cytokenesis- when cell actually schisms = ]
organism whose cells do not contain a nucleus copies its genetic material and then divides into 2 identical organisms
1) when body cells have pairs of similar chromosomes
2) when sex cells do not have pairs of chromosomes (have HAlf number as body cells)
1) diploid
2) haploid
process that produces 4 haploid sex cells from one diploid cell; ensures offspring will have sam # of chromosomes as parents
genetic material of all organisms; made up of 2 twisted strands of sugar-phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
type of nucleic acid that carries codes for making proteins from nucleus to ribosomes
1) passing of traits from parent to offspring
2)study of how traits are inherited
1) heredity
2) genetics
Who cross-bred two pea plants and did a million other observations to study genetics?
Mr. Gregor Mendel
1) genotype
2) phenotype
1) genetic makeup (TT, Tt)
2) how organism is as a result of genotype (Tall, Mixed)
1) TT
2) Tt
1) homozygous
2) heterozygous
red + white = pink, not red
incomplete dominance
when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce a trait
polygenic inheritance
methods to change the arrangement of a gene's DNA to imrpove crop production, produce medicine, and change cells normal tasks
genetic engineering
any variation that makes an organism better suited to its environment
formed when layers of sand, silt, clay, or mud are compacted and cemented together
sedimentary rock
1) look at the layers above and below the rock and guestimate the ages
2) comparing the amount of radioactive element w/ nonradioactive element in rock
1) relative dating
2) radiometric dating
gives off a steady amount of radiation as it slowly changes to a nonradioactive element
radioactive element
body parts similar in origina and structure are called...
structures that don't seem to have a function
vestigial structures
HOMONIDS (in order):
1. Australopithecus
2. Homo Habilis
3. Homo Erectus
4. Homo Sapiens (Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons)
substances in food that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
large molecules that contain carbon, hyrdorgen, ozygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
main sources of energy for body
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
organic nutrients needed in small amounts for growth, regulating body functions, and preventing diseases
inorganic nutrients that lack carbon and regulate many chem. reactions in body
waves of contractions that move food through entire digestive tract
thin, watery liquid in stomach that moves into small intestine
most digestion takes place in...
chyme enters 1) ________ and 2) ____, a greenish fluid from the liver, is added. food is absorbed in 3)_____ intestine, with many small fingerlike things called 4) _____ on the side. remaining undigested food goes on to 5)_____ intestine. excess water is absorbed, undigested material becomes more solid and is released.
1. duodenum
2. bile
3. small
4. villi
5. large
3 types of circulation:
1. to and from tissues of heart
2. heart. lungs. heart
3. oxygen-rich blood moves to all organs and body tissues
1. coronary circulation
2. pulmonary circulation
3. systemic circulation
clogged artery
high blood pressure
Parts of Blood
plasma- liquid part of blood
red blood cells- contain hemoglobin (carries O2 and CO2)
white blood cells- fight invaders
platelets- clot blood
Universal Donor=
Universal Reciever=
O (Brian)
AB (Emma)
exces tissue fluid that diffues into lymphatic capillaries
type of white blood cell in lymph
bean-shaped organs that filter out microorganisms and foreign materials that have been picked up by lymphocytes
lymph nodes
tubelike passageway for food, water, and air
airway to which vocal cords are attached
tube lined with mucous membranes and cilia
two short tubes at lower end of trachea
clusters of tiny, thin-walled sacs at the end of each bronchiole
when alveoli in lungs enlarge
when shortness of breath, wheezing, or coughing occurs
tiny filtering units in kidneys
ureters lead from 1. ______ to 2. _______ and urethra from 3. _______ to 4. _______
1. kidney
2. bladder
3. bladder
4. outside
thin membrane filled with clear liquid which acs as a cusion for embryo
amniotic sac
sorted and layered glacial deposit formed when heaviest sediments drop out first
zone of rapid temperature change in ocean water
force caused by earth's rotation that makes earths winds and currents bend and curve
Cariolis force
surface current that flows in circular pattern
pattern of tides where there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides each day