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37 Cards in this Set

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Mineral
Naturally occurring inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and an orderly internal structure.
Minerals must be formed by what?
Natural processes
Minerals must be also be:
organic
inorganic
Organic
Every mineral is a what?
Element or compound
Minerals have what physical form?
They are crystalline solids.
What are the 4 characteristics of minerals?
1.Formed by natural processes.
2.Are inorganic
3.Is an element or compound.(with a definite chemical composition.)
4.Are a crystalline solid.
What does crystalline mean?
THe atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats over and over again.
List two of the processes that form crystals.
Magma & Solution of salts
Magma
Hot melted rock beneath the Earth's surface.
Silicate
Mineral that contains silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements.
How are crystals formed from solutions?
Minerals are dissolved in water. Water evaporates. Ions that are left behind combine to form crystals.
What are the 6 crystal shapes?
Cubic
Hexagonal
Tetragonal
Orthorhombic (brick like)
Monoclinic
Triclinic
Most of the common rock forming minerals belong to what group?
Silicates
What are the 2 most abundant elements in the Earth's crust?
Silicon & Oxygen
How are crystals of minerals classified?
By their shapes
Hardness
Measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
What determines hardness?
The arrangement of the minerals atoms.
What is the Mohs scale?
A list of common minerals organized according to their hardness. Used for comparison.
Luster
The way a mineral reflects light. Luster can be metallic or nonmetallic.
Give examples of nonmetallic luster.
Dull,pearly,silky,glassy
Specific Gravity
Ratio of a minerals weight compared to the weight of an EQUAL volume of water.
How are minerals recognized?
By their physical properties.
Streak
The color of a mineral when it is in its powdered form.
What are the physical properties of minerals?
Appearance
Hardness
Specific gravity
Streak
Cleavage & Fracture
Cleavage
Physical property of a mineral that allows it to break along smooth, flat surfaces.
Fracture
Physical property of a mineral that allows it to break with uneven, rough, jagged surfaces.
Gem
Beautiful, rare, highly prized mineral or form of a mineral.
Which is a characteristic of a mineral?
A. It can be a liquid.
B. It is organic.
C. It has no crystal structure.
D. It is inorganic.
D. It is inorganic.
What must all silicates contain?
A. Magnesium
B. Silicon & Oxygen
C. Silicon & Aluminum
D. Oxygen & Carbon
B. Silicon & Oxygen
What is hot, melted rock called?
A. Magma
B. Quartz
C. Salt Water
D. Gypsum
A. Magma
Which mineral group does quartz belong to?

A. Oxides
B. Carbonates
C. Silicates
D. Sulfides
C. Silicates
What is the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched?
A. Luster
B. Hardness
C. Cleavage
D. Fracture
B. Hardness
What is the color of a powdered mineral formed when rubbing it against an unglazed porcelain tile?
A. Luster
B. Density
C. Hardness
D. Streak
D. Streak
In what way does quartz break?
A. Cleavage
B. Fracture
C. Luster
D. Flat planes
B. Fracture
Which of the following must crystalline solids have?
A. Carbonates
B. Cubic Structures
C. Ordered atoms
D. Cleavage
C. Ordered atoms
Which is the hardest on the Mohs scale?
A. talc
B. quartz
C. diamond
D. feldspar
C. diamond
Which crystal system do halite crystals belong to?
A. Triclinic
B. Hexagonal
C. Monoclinic
D. Cubic
D. Cubic