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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the #1 cause of avoidable mortality in the U.S.?
tobacco
Sources Contributing to Early Death Today
lifestyle - more than half

healthcare - 10% of unnecessary deaths

heredity - 16%

Environment - 25%
Hypokinetic Conditions
Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes

Cancer

Osteoporosis
Leading Causes of Death
Heart disease - 28.4%
Cancer - 22.8%
Stroke - 6.7%
Respiratory diseases - 5.1%
Injuries - 4.2%
Diabetes - 3%
Hypertension - 0.8%
Other - 29%
Cardiovascular Disease
Modifiable:

Sedentary Lifestyle
Hypertension
High Cholesterol
Tobacco Use
Diabetes
Obesity

Nonmodifiable:

Family History
Aging
Gender
Ethnicity
Activity Reduces Coronary Heart Disease Risk
It takes only a moderate amount of physical activity to reduce health risks of CHD
Diabetes Mellitus
Type I (juvenile onset, insulin-dependent)
Pancreas fails to produce insulin
Usual onset before age 30
About 5% of all diabetics are Type I

Type II (non-insulin dependent)
Once called adult onset, but there has been a rise in the prevalence in children
Lack of sensitivity to insulin and/or not enough insulin
Often caused by obesity
~95% of diabetics are Type II
Lung cancer
--Leading cause of cancer death.
--Chief risk factor = smoking. ETS causes about 3000 lung cancer deaths per year.
--Symptoms = persistant cough, chest pain
--Treatment = combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
--Survival rate = 15% after five years
Colon and rectal cancer
--Second leading cause of cancer death
--Risk factors: age; preexisting polyps; heredity; inactivity and obesity; diets high in red meat, smoked foods, simple sugars; excessive alcohol consumption; smoking
--Symptoms: Bleeding from the rectum; change in bowel habits
-Testing: Stool blood test; sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
--Treatment: Surgery is primary method of treatment
Breast cancer
--Most common cancer in women and second to lung cancer in the number of cancer deaths among women
--Causes/risk factors: heredity; long-term exposure to high blood levels of estrogen; early onset of menstruation; late onset of menopause; no children or first child after age 30; obesity; current use of HRT; alcohol use; inactivity; diet low in vegetables and fiber
--Early detection: Mammography (low-dose X ray) after age 40; clinical breast exams; breast awareness and self-examinations
--Diagnosis: Ultrasonography = imaging method using high-pitched sound; biopsy = removal and examination of a small piece of body tissue
--Treatment: Surgery (lumpectomy, mastectomy); Chemotherapy or radiation, social support
Prostate cancer
--Most common cancer in men and second to lung cancer in the number of cancer deaths among men
--Risk factors: age; ethnicity (African American ); heredity; lifestyle factors; diets high in calories, dairy products, and animal fat and low in plant foods; obesity; inactivity; history of STDs
--Detection and diagnosis: Rectal exam PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test, ultrasound, biopsy
--Treatment: Surgery, radioactive seeds
--Survival rate = 98% at 5 years
Skin cancer
--Most common type of cancer when cases of the highly curable forms are included
--Primary risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Testicular cancer
--Rare overall, but most common cancer in men age 20–35 years. Can be detected with self-examination.
Major warning signs of cancer
C - Change in bowel or bladder habits
A - A sore that does not heal
U - Unusual bleeding or discharge
T - Thickening or lump in the breasts or elsewhere
I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O - Obvious change in wart or mole
N - Nagging cough or hoarseness
Percentage of All Cancer Deaths Linked to Risk Factors
Tobacco and Diet and obesity are the greatest risk factors
Osteoporosis
Progressive loss of bone mineral density

Occurs commonly in old age

Occurs at an earlier age and more frequently in women than men

Factors associated with osteoporosis:

Physical inactivity
Loss of sex hormones
Low calcium levels
High protein intake
Smoking
Caffeine
Osteoporosis - nutrition and exercise
Nutrition:
Dietary factors that build bone mass: Calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K
Other possible dietary factors: vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, copper, boron
Dietary factors linked to loss of bone mass: Alcohol, sodium, caffeine, retinol, soda, protein (if intake of calcium and vitamin D is low)
Exercise:
Weight-bearing exercise and strength training also build and maintain bone mass
Activity Reduces Risk of Osteoporosis
Increases peak bone mass
Slows decline in bone mass
5 risk factors for osteoporosis:

-Being Caucasian or Asian
-Being shorter than 5’4”
-Weighing less than 127 pounds
-Being female
-Having a family history of osteoporosis