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123 Cards in this Set

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What does the Z-line denote? What is another name for it?
The epigastric junction or the area where a transition from epithilium lining the esophagus to that lining the stomach takes place.
What anchors the esophagus to the lumbar vertebrae?
The right crus of the diaphragm.
The looseining of what ligament can cause a hiatal hernia? What pathology results from this?
THe loosening of the upper liimb of the phrenico esophageal ligament can cause a hiatal hernia. This results in a loss of sphincter function and acid pouring into the esophagus.
What does the epigastric sphincter do?
Prevents stomach acid from going into esophagus.
What nerves come with the esoophagus through the esophageal hiatus?
The vagal trunks which become the gastric nerves.
What is a hiatal hernia?
Protrusion of a portion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus (loose phrenico esophageal ligaments).
What is pyrosis? What is it often associated with?
When acid moves into the esophagus (heart burn) or regurgitation of food and acid above the Z line of the esophagus damaging the esophageal mucosa. Often it is associated with a hiatal hernia.
What are the 4 main parts of the stomach?
Cardia, fundus, body, pyloric part.
What are the 3 parts to the pyloric part?
Pyloric antrum, pyloric canal, Pyloris.
What are the 2 structures in the pyloris?
Pyloric sphincter and pyloric orifice.
Describe the feeling of the pyloris. Why does it feel this way?
Very hard due to increased wall thickness with more smooth muscle.
What is the antrum an entrance to?
The pyloric reagion of the stomach.
What is the "reservoir of burps"?
The fundus.
What defines the angular incisure?
A change in curvature from vertical to horizontal.
What is the function of the pyloris?
Opens for a short time to allow chyme to pass through
What is the purpose of gastric folds? What is another name for them?
To increase surface area for acid release. AKA "rugae"
What is between gastric folds?
Gastric canals.
As soon as you leave the ploric orifice you are in what region of the digestive tract?
The duodenal cap.
What is the name for the thick band of muscle that controls the diameter of the pyloric orifice?
The pyloric sphincter.
Describe the flow food would take through the stomach assuming it stays closely adhered to the inferior aspect of the stomach.
Esophagus->Cardia->Body->Antrum->Pyloric canal->Pyloris->Duodenum
Which branches of the celiac artery supply the stomach?
All 3 branches supply the stomach. (Common hepatic, left gastric, splenic)
Which artery supplies the right lesser curvature? WHat is its origin?
The right gastric artery originates from the common hepatic artery.
What artery supplies the right side of the greater curvature? What is its orgin?
The gastroduodenal artery. It originates from the common hepatic artery and passes being the duodenum.
What artery supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach?
The left gastric artery.
What artery supplies the fundus?
The splenic artery.
What artery supplies the majoritey of the greater curvature of the stomach? What is its origin?
The left gastro-omental artery supplies the majority of the greater curvture of the stomach. Its origin is the splenic artery.
What is the major excretion product of the duodenum?
Enzymes and bile.
What are the 4 ares of the duodenum?
Superior, descending, horizontal, ascending.
Where are the minor/major duodenal papillae found?
In the descending duodenum.
What does the major duodenal papillae release? How about the minor?
THe major releases enzymes and bile. THe minor releases only enzymes.
Where is the suspensory ligament of duodenum (triez)? What does it do? With what is it continuous with?
The suspensory ligament od duodenum (triez) is found in the ascending duodenum and is continuous with the right crus of the diaphragm. It anchors the duodenu.
Where is the duodenojejunal junction and flexure and what function can it serve?
The duodenojejunal junction and flexure can be found in the ascending duodenum. Flow of food can be regulated here.
What are plicae circulares?
Folds of the duodenum that add surface area.
Does the suspensory ligment of duodenum lie in front of or behind the pancreas?
Behind the pancreas.
What supplies the superior surface of the duodenum? What is that artery's origin?
The supraduodenal artery from the gastroduodenal artery.
What supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach and part of the duodenum? What is its origin?
The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery from the gastroduodenal artery.
What artery found in the duodenum has 2 arteries of the same name?
The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
What artery supplies the distal portion of the duodenum? What is its origin?
The Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery from the superior mesenteric artery.
As you are traveling through the duodenum from the pyloris to the jejunum, describe the arteries that would supply the sections that you are in.
Supraduodenal artery->Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery->Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.
What is a typical pation who has arteriomesenteric occlusion of the duodenum?
A pation who is tall, frail, weak, slender and has flacid abdominal muscles.
What are the symptoms of arteriomesenteric occlusion of duodenum? What can alleviate this condition?
Nausea and vomiting 1-2 hours after a meal. Lying down after the meal can ease symptoms.
Where is the jejunum usually located? What occurs here?
The jejunum occupies the left superior side of the small intestine. Enzymatic digestion continues to occur here.
Where does the majority of the absorption of nutrients take place?
In the ileum.
Describe the differences between the jejunum and the ileum with respect to wall, arcades, vasa recta, anastamoses, amount of fat, plicae, and peyer's patches.
Jejunum: Thicker, smaller number of arcades, longer vasa recta, poorer anastomoses, less fat, many plicae, few peyer's patches.

Ileum: Thinner, Larger number of arcades, shorter vasa recta, better anastomoses, more fat, few plicae, many peyer's patches.
What color is the jejunum in a living person?
Pink
What color is the ileum in a living person?
Pale.
Approximately how many arcades does the jejunum usually have?
1-2
Approximately how many arcades does the ileum usually have?
Several sets.
What is intussusception?
Telescoping of the small intestine into an adjacent section.
What is volvulus?
Twisting of a loop of the small intestion to such an extend that blood flow through the mesentary is obstructed.
What are Tenia Coli? Where are they found? How many are there?
The Tenia coli are 3 bands of longitudinal smooth muscle found in the large intestine.
What is the major function of the Large intestine?
Absorption of water.
What are haustra? What is their purpose?
Bulges in the colon that holds food so water can be absorped.
What seperates haustra? What are they made of?
Semilunar folds separate haustra. They are made of smooth muscle.
What are omental appendices? Where are they found?
Omental appendices are lobules of fat along tenia coli in the large intestine.
Where is the appendix attached?
To the base of the Cecum.
What anchors the left colic flexure?
The phrenicocolic ligament?
What does the phrenicocolic ligament anchor?
The left colic flexure.
What layer is lost after the sigmoidal colon?
The visceral peritoneom.
What is diahrea?
The fast transfer of food through the colon without time for water absorption to occur (why it is so watery).
What artery's branches runs with the appendix?
The colic artery.
What is the passageway from the ileum to the cecum called?
The ileocecal orifice.
What orientation is the majority of appendixes in humans? How about the second most common?
Retrocecal orientation (behind the colon is the most common (64%). The second most common is the pelvic orientatation (32%).
How big is the liver?
Largest organ in the body.
What are the functions of the liver?
Processing digestive tract nutrients, bile production, glycogen storage.
What are the 4 anatomical lobes of the liver?
Left, right, caudate, and quadrate.
What is the quadrate lobe bordered by on the left and right sides?
Left side ligamentum teres, right side gall bladder.
What seperates the anatomical right and left lobes?
The falciform ligament.
What is the most superior ligament of the liver? What does this ligament eventually become? What structure does it anchor the liver to?
The coronary ligament is the most superior ligament it eventually becomes the left triangular ligament.
What is the most inferior liament on the liver?
The ligamentum teres.
What other organ is closely associated with the liver?
The Gallbladder.
What is the ligamentum teres a remnant of? What structure is it heading towards?
The ligamentum teres is a remnant of the old umbilical vein towards the inferior vena cava.
What demarkates the functional division of the liver? On which lobe is this located?
The inferior vena cava demarks the functional division andh is mostly on the right lobe of the liver.
What are the two functional lobes of the liver?
The left and right functional lobes.
What is found in the porta hepatis?
Bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery
Where do hepatic veins lead?
To the inferior vena cava.
What does the hepatic artery carry?
Oxygenated blood to the liver (supplies parenchyma).
What does the portal vein carry?
Nutrient rich, deoxygenated blood.
Give the 3 veins of the liver in the order that they branch form the portal vein.
Splenic vein, inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein, form together into portal vein.
What is the bare area?
Area of the liver where it contacts the diaphragm.
Which is more superior the anterior or the posterior coronary ligament?
The anterior coronary ligamen is more superior.
What ligament do the anterior coronary and the posterior coronary ligament form?
The Right triangular ligament.
On what aspect of the liver is the liver is the porta hepatis found?
On the posterior aspect.
What two lobes is the ligamentum venosum found between?
The left lobe and the caudate lobe.
Between what two ligaments is the ligamentum venosum found?
Between the 2 posterior coronary ligaments.
What are the 3 parts of the Gall bladder?
The fundus, the body and the neck.
What specialized structure does the neck contain?
The spiral valve (like fingers).
What happens if the gall bladder doesn't absorb enough water?
Gall stones can form from precipitation of enzymes.
Where can gallstones usually get trapped?
Cystic duct.
What is cholecystisis?
Inflammation of the gall bladder, usually results in jaundice.
Where do hepatic veins lead?
To the inferior vena cava.
What does the hepatic artery carry?
Oxygenated blood to the liver (supplies parenchyma).
What does the portal vein carry?
Nutrient rich, deoxygenated blood.
Give the 3 veins of the liver in the order that they branch form the portal vein.
Splenic vein, inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein, form together into portal vein.
What is the bare area?
Area of the liver where it contacts the diaphragm.
Which is more superior the anterior or the posterior coronary ligament?
The anterior coronary ligamen is more superior.
What ligament do the anterior coronary and the posterior coronary ligament form?
The Right triangular ligament.
On what aspect of the liver is the liver is the porta hepatis found?
On the posterior aspect.
What two lobes is the ligamentum venosum found between?
The left lobe and the caudate lobe.
Between what two ligaments is the ligamentum venosum found?
Between the 2 posterior coronary ligaments.
What are the 3 parts of the Gall bladder?
The fundus, the body and the neck.
What specialized structure does the neck contain?
The spiral valve (like fingers).
What happens if the gall bladder doesn't absorb enough water?
Gall stones can form from precipitation of enzymes.
Where can gallstones usually get trapped?
Cystic duct.
What is cholecystisis?
Inflammation of the gall bladder, usually results in jaundice.
What do the right and left hepatic duct form?
The common hepatic duct.
What do the common hepatic duct and cystic duct form?
The bile duct.
What duct joins the bile duct?
The main pancreatic duct.
What duct dumps directly into the small intestine?
The accessory pancreatic duct.
What dumps into the major duodenal papilla?
The gall bladder (cystic duct), right and left hepatic duct, common hepatic duct, bile duct, main pancreatic duct.
What dumps into the minor duodenal papilla?
The Acessory pancreatic duct.
Which will food come in contact with first, the major or the minor duodenal papilla?
The minor duodenal papilla.
What forms the hepato pancreatic (Vater) amuplla?
The pancreatic duct and the common bile duct.
Where is the hepatopancreatic ampulla located?
The major duodenal papilla.
What are the exocrine and endocrine products released by the pancreas?
Exocrine - pancreatic enzymes
Endocrine - Insulin and glucagon
What are the 4 parts of the pancreas?
Head, neck, body, tail.
What is the Uncinate process and what does it extend behind?
The uncinate process is part of the head of the pancreas and it extends posteriorly behind the superior mesenteric artery and veins.
What is the function of the spleen?
Filters blood, removes old blood cells and foreign material.
Describe the strength of the spleen.
Delicate structure, thin capsule most frequnely injured organ in the body.
What is the hilum of the spleen?
The site of ligament attachments and splenic vessels enter and leave.
What takes over the function of the spleen if it is removed?
The liver and the bone marrow.
Where will a stab wound rupture the spleen?
A stab wound at the 9th intercostal space near the midaxillary line.
What 2 pathologies will result from a stabbing of the spleen?
Hemothorax and abdominal bleeding.