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67 Cards in this Set

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H. pylori shape?
Curved/spiral
H. pylori motility?
corkscrew
How diag H. pylori?
urease breath test
antibody test
bx if necessary
Tx for H. pylori?
combo of 2 or more drugs: bismuth + metro + tetra and PPI
ETEC attaches in SI to what via what microbial structure?
pilli
ETEC's toxic effect mediated by?
enterotoxins
MOA of ETEC's enterotoxins?
promote cl- excretion and prevent Na absorbtion BY INCREASING c'G'MP
ETEC's ST increases cGMP or cAMP?
cGMP
Tx ETEC?
fluids and ab's (widespread resistance so try a few)
Rotavirus appearance?
spokes radiating from center of wheel
How many rotavirus groups and which is most imp for human outbreaks?
7 (A-G) and A is most imp
Transmission of rotavirus?
fecal-oral
Incubation time for rotavirus?
48 hrs
What symptoms w/ rotavirus in kids < 2 yrs old?
Severe diarrhea
Appearance of intestinal mucosa after rotavirus? (3 things)
infected cells destroyed
atrophy of villi
flattened appearence = (decreased absorption)
Why can rotavirus reach SI?
resistant to stomach pH
Method of diag for rotavirus?
ELISA
Tx of rotavirus?
Electrolyte/fluid replacement
Norovirus replicates where?
GI tract (shed in stool)
Transmission of Norovirus?
Fecal-oral
Clinical presentation of Norovirus?
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
How long does Noroviurs last?
24-48 hours - self-limited
Norovirus Dx and TX
ELISA and fluid/electrolytes if needed
How many flagella in Cholera
one, polar = rapid movement
O2 requrements of V. cholera?
Facultative anaerobe
Name the 2 subdivisions of V. cholera?
Classic and El Tor!
What is special about El Tor?
Able to survive in H20 longer and has hemolysins. It also has longer carriage rates.
What food has cholera?
Seafood (undercooked) from contaminated water supply
What allows cholera to adhere to SI wall?
Adhesion factors
What type of treatment would increase cholera's ability to infect?
Tx's that reduce gastric acid.
What do ETEC and V. cholera have in common?
enterotoxin (non-invasive)
Appearance of cholera stools?
rice-water
Incubation time for V. cholera?
Hours-days
Tx for V. cholera?
Electrolyte/fluid replacement and tetra.
Name 3 bugs that cause food poisoning?
Staph aureus, B. Cereus, C. perfrengens.
What about Staph. aureus causes food poisoning?
a toxin
What does Staph. aureus' toxin do in the stomach that induces vomiting?
binds to neuronal receptors which stimulate the vomiting center (thank goodness)
Onset of symptoms for S. aureus?
1-6 hours (for me, 1 hour)
How many different S. aureus toxins are there and which two are most commonly associated w/ food poisoning?
8. A is most common, then D
Are S. aureus toxins heat stabile or labile?
Stabile (st)
How susceptible are S. aureus' toxins to enzymes in stomach?
Not susceptible
Do S. aureus toxins behave like normal antigens?
No. they behave like superantigens (bind MHCII and activate T cells)
How will heating of food affect S. aureus?
Kill bug but not toxin
Anything unique about type of food commonly containing S. aureus?
Yes. Protien rich i.e. egg salad, cream pastry
Tx for S. aureus (food poisoning)
Penicillin or vanco. (vanco? geez. I usually wind up heaving my guts out)
B. Ceres causes food poisoning by what mechanism?
toxin
Onset of symptoms w/ B. cereus: if toxin ingestd or if bug ingested?
Toxin: 1-6 hrs (same as staph)
Bug: 8-16 hours
What will ingestion of Bacillus cereus toxin/bug cause?
Toxin: vomiting
Bug: diarrhea
Tx for Bacillus cereus?
Vancomycin or Imepinem, quinolone, Clindamycin
B. cereus Gram - or +?
+
Onset of food poisoning symptoms w/ C. perfringens?
8-16 hours
C. perfringens G-/+?
+
In what part of GI do C. perfringens produce their nasty enterotoxin?
LI
In what way does C. perfringens enterotoxin exert its nasty effect on GI?
Inhibit glucose transport and damage of intestinal ep results in fluid loss.
C. perfringens 02 req's?
Anaerobic
What are the two types of C. perfringens and which one commonly causes food poisoning?
Types A and B. Type A is more common.
Shigella G-/+?
-
O2 req's for Shig?
Aerobic
Shigella requires high/low dose for infectivity?
Low
How many Shig serotypes?
4 (A-D)
Shig cause bacteremia or not?
Not
Which serotype of Shig is common in U.S.?
Type D
Appearance of diarrhea w/ Shig?
Blood, mucus
Dx for Shig?
Stool culture (SSYC)
What ab to use on Shig?
Quinolones (when infection is severe)
Which cells does Salmonella use to invade SI?
M cells.
Salmonella activate cGMP or cAMP?
cAMP