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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the most likely cause of peptic ulcers?
what is the most common presentation of upper GI bleeding?
hematemesis or melena
where does the stomach get its blood supply from?
the celiac artery
which nerve stimulates the stomach?
vagas nerve
what type of cells make up the cardia and antrum?
mucous cells
what are some etiologies of acute upper GI bleeds?
peptic ulcer diseases, portal HTN, mallory-weiss tears, vascular anomolies,
which pharmacologic pain management option should you avoid in patients c cardiac disease because of its possible association with increased risk for MI?
COX-2 inhibitors
morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone and fentanyl are what classification of pain meds?
opioid. used for severe pain. sometimes in conjunction with NSAID's.
dilated submucosal veins that develop in patients with underlying portal HTN and may result in serious upper GI bleeding
esophageal varices
what is the most common cause of portal HTN?
a disease which affects all organs of the body, but most lethally the liver and the brain. it is a two-phase illness because it is almost always associated with a previous viral infection, such as influenza, cold, or chicken pox. MC in children. associated w the use of ASA
Reye's Syndrome
what are some side effects of ASA?
gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding, allergy, associated w/ Reye's syndrome, bleeding in general.
a Score used to assess the prognosis of chronic liver disease, mainly cirrhosis. Although it was originally used to predict mortality during surgery, it is now used to determine the prognosis, as well as the required strength of treatment and the necessity of liver transplantation.
Child-Pugh score
what are the 3 phases of neural/hormonal influence on gastric function?
what are the 3 basic types of gastritis
acute (erosive/hemorrhagic)
special forms
what is the most common symptom of acute gastritis?
nondiscript epigastric descomfort
what is the only gastritis that cannot be treated with H2 blockers or sucralfate?
if p has Portal HTN gastritis. use BB instead.
h.pylori causes 80% of this infectious disease and therefore R/O pernicious anemia?
Infectious gastritis
this type of chronic gastritis usually affects the body and antrum and sometimes promotes Peptic ulcer disease?
infectious gastritis
this type of chronic gastritis usually spares the antrum and affects the pariental cells. specific to the body and fundus. there is a lack of intrinsic factor produced, decrease in acid production?
autoimmune gastritis
what are some examples of Granulomatous Gastritis?
mild epigstric discomfort, occasional N/V, HA, excessive salivation, flatus are symptoms of ?
acute gastritis
what are some common findings that indicate gastritis?
hematemesis, bloody NG aspirate, abdominal tenderness, bloating, emesis
what is the gold standard lab test to order if gastritis is suspected?
endoscopy c biopsy
what is the TX for gastritis (and also duodenal ulcers)
remove irritant
treat for H pylori
antacids & H2 blockers
no smoke/drink
a break in the duodenal or gastric mucosa that extends through the muscularis mucosae, are usually 5mm-1cm?
Peptic Ulcer Disease
what are the top 3 MC types of PUD?
ZE syndrome
gastric and duodenal ulcers tend to recur in the same location? T/F
this is typically relieved by food, increases acid production in the stomah and H.pylori is the number one cause?
duodenal ulcer
this condition is worsened by eating or by the use of NSAIDS; normal or decreased acid production and decreased mucosal resistance?
gastric ulcer
where are most duodenal ulcers located?
in the duodenal bulb. ulcers distal to the duodenal bulb should raise suspicion for ZE syndrome
which is more common, duodenal or gastric ulcer?
Duodenal. 5 times more common!
where are gastric ulcers commonly located?
lesser curvature. malignancies more likely at greater curvature.
what is the 2nd MC etiology of PUD?
how do NSAID's cause PUD?
they inhibit prostaglandins which normally timulate production of mucous secretions & bicarb
what are some examples of hypersecretion states that have been known to cause PUD?
ZE-syndrome, MEN-1 (multiple endocrine Neoplasia)and systemic mastocytosis.
what are some common disease processes associated with PUD?
cirrhosis, renal failure, pulmonary ds and any P that have a systemic dz are prone to ulcers.
Treat Prophylactically c H2 blockers
what is the number one symptom of PUD?
epigastric pain, then N/V.
what are some Lab tests that may help with the DX of PUD?
upper GI endoscopy c/ biopsy, amylase/lipase, electrolytes, serum gastrin level if ZE is suspected
how is H. pylori infection dx?
serological tests that measure H.pylori IgG, FECAL ANTIGEN ASSAY, Urea Breath test
how is H.pylori infection in PUD diagnosed?
upper endoscopy "EGD"
what are some general examples of pharmacological therapy that can be used to inhibit acid?
H2 blockers
Augmentation protection
what are some common side effects of H2 blockers
-aluminum (causes phosphate depletion & osteoporosis)
-Sodium overload in chf
-hypercalcium causing milk alkali syndrome
-Inhibits absorption of antibiotics, digoxin, warfarin
what are the side effects of the anticholinergics?
Reduce acid by 50%
Hot as a Hare
Blind as a Bat
Dry as a bone
Red as a beet
Mad as a hatter
which PUD therapy should not be used during pregnancy?
what are the TX regimens used for H.pylori eradication?
10-14 days ABX
H2 blocker/pepto/PPI
what are some of the ABX used to treat H.pylori?
tetracycline (not in children <12)
what are the two main reasons for H.pylori TX failure?
ABX resistance
patient noncompliance
what is the second most common cancer worldwide?
gastric cancer
a tumor of the pancreas that secretes gastrin~ gastrinoma
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
a tumor of the pancreas that secretes gastrin~ gastrinoma
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
a tumor of the pancreas that secretes gastrin~ gastrinoma
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome