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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gastrin is made in the...
G cells of the antrum of the stomach
Cholecystokinin is made in the...
I cells of the duodenum and jejunum
Secretin is made in the...
S cells of the duodenum
Somatostatin is made in the...
D cells of the pancreatic islets and GI mucosa
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (aka gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)) is made in the...
K cells of the duodenum and jejunum
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is made in the...
Parasympathetic ganglia in sphincters, gallbladder, and small intestine
Motilin is made in the...
Small intestine
Intrinsic factor is made in the...
Parietal cells of the stomach
Gastric acid is made in the...
Parietal cells of the stomach
Pepsin is made in the...
Chief cells of the stomach
HCO3- is made in the...
Mucosal cells (stomach, duodenum, salivary glands, pancreas) and Brunner's glands of the duodenum
What is the action of gastrin?
Inc. gastric acid secretion through effects on ECL cells, leading to histamine release
Inc. growth of gastric mucosa
Inc. gastric motility
Gastrin release is increased by?
Stomach distension and alkalinization, amino acids, and vagal stimulation

Phenylalanine and tryptophan are POTENT stimulators
Gastrin release is inhibited by?
Stomach pH < 1.5
What GI hormone is incresed in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
Gastrin
What is the action of cholecystokinin?
Inc. secretion of pancreatic enzymes
Inc. gallbladder contraction
Inc. sphincter of Oddi relaxation
Dec. gastric emptying
Cholecystokinin release is increased by?
Fatty acids and amino acids
How does cholecystokinin cause pancreatic secretions?
Acts on neural muscarinic pathways
What is the action of secretin?
Inc. pancreatic HCO3- release... (Increasing pancreatic secretion flow leads to increased HCO3- content... exchanged with Cl- to remain an isotonic solution)
Inc. bile secretion
Dec. gastric acid secretion
Secretin release is increased by?
Acid and fatty acids in the lumen of the duodenum
What is the action of somatostatin?
Dec. gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion
Dec. pancreatic and small intestine fluid secretion
Dec. gallbladdes contraction
Dec. insulin and glucagon release
Somatostatin release is increased by?
Acid
Somatostatin release is inhibited by?
Vagal stimulation
What are the actions of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (aka gastric inhibitory peptide)?
Exocrine - Dec. gastric acid secretion
Endocrine - Inc. insulin release
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide release is increased by?
Fatty acids, amino acids, and oral glucose
Because of the actions of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, what can be said about oral glucose vs. IV glucose?
An oral glucose load will be used more rapidly than the equivalent given by IV
What are the actions of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide?
Inc. intestinal water and electrolyte secretion
Inc. relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters
Dec. gastric acid production
VIP release is increased by?
Distension and vagal stimulation
VIP release is inhibited by?
Adrenergic input
What is a VIPoma?
A non-alpha, non-beta islet cell pancreatic tumor that secretes VIP. Results in copious diarrhea -
"pancreatic cholera"
How does NO affect the GI tract?
Increases relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter
What will an absence in the production of NO in the GI tract cause?
Achalasia
What is the activity of motilin?
Produces migrating motor complexes (MMC's)
Motilin release is increased by?
Fasting state
What are motilin receptor agonists useful for?
Stimulating intestinal peristalsis
What is the action of intrinsic factor?
Functions as a vitamin B12 binding protein - required for eventual vitamin B12 uptake in the terminal ileum)
What is the action of gastric acid?
Decreases stomach pH
Gastrin release is increased by?
Histamine, ACh, gastrin
Gastrin release is inhibited by?
Somatostatin, GIP, prostaglandins, secretin
What is a gastrinoma?
Gastrin-secreting tumor that causes continuous high levels of acid secretion and ulcers
What is the action of pepsin?
Protein digestion
Pepsin release is increased by?
Vagal stimulation and local acid
How is pepsinogen converted to pepsin?
H+
What is the action of HCO3-?
Neutralizes acid
HCO3- release is increased by?
pancreatic and biliary secretion with secretin