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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
describe the musculature of the esophagus
upper third- striated muscle
lower two-thirds- smooth muscle
what type of cells make up the mucosal layer of the esophagus?
Stratified squamous epithelium
an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower end of the esophagus caused by chronic acid exposure
Barret's Esophagus
this condition may be a precursor to adenocarcinoma
Barrett’s esophagus
what do you suspect with a new onset of dysphagia in a patient > 40 yrs of age
Esophageal CA
what is TNM classification
Used for tumor staging:

Tumor
Nodes
Metastatic
What does Stage IV TNM classification indicate?
The tumor has spread
This is severe muscle spasm with marked amplitude but normal LES sphincter tone
Nutcracker esophagus
what is the treatment for esophageal spasms?
Nitrates
Calcium channel blockers
this disease is characterized by excessive deposits of collagen in the skin or other organs
Scleroderma
A web + iron def anemia + women=
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
A symmetrical, submucosal fibrous thickening occurring at the LES junction
Schatzki’s ring
what is water brash?
clear non regurgitated oral salivary secretions in the mouth from vagal reflex
what are some etiologies of GERD?
Incompetent LES sphincter (most common)
Hiatal hernias
Delays in gastric emptying time
Name some aggravating factors of GERD
High fat & spicy food, caffeine & chocolate, bending over or lying down, ETOH intake, nocturnal eating, smoking, emotions and obesity medications (prednisone, antibiotics )
What are the typical symptoms of GERD?
Heart burn
Regurgitation
Water brash
What are the atypical symptoms of GERD?
Chest pain
Cough
Laryngitis
what are some laboratory Tests for GERD?
Xrays:Barium swallow
Upper endoscopy
24 hr esophageal pH monitor (pH goes <4)
T/F ALL GERD MUST BE CONSIDERED CARDIAC UNTIL PROVEN OTHERWISE
TRUE
which drugs reduce LES tone?
Anticholinergics
Nitrates
Ca channel blockers
BC pills
which drugs increase LES tone?
Gastrin
Cholinergics
This occurs when part of the stomach lies within the thoracic cavity above the diaphragm
Hiatal Hernia
This results from prolonged and forceful vomiting, coughing or convulsions
Mallory-Weiss Tears
How do you treat fungal infections?
Miconazole
Imidazole
Clotrimazole lozenges
Ketoconazole
Amphtericin B
This disease involves an enlargement of the colon, caused by bowel obstruction resulting from absent enteric nerves in colon
Hirschsprung's disease, or congenital aganglionic megacolon

May be a cause of constipation
Trypanosoma cruzi causes?
Chaga's disease: can be a cause of constipation
what study do you do in patients with suspected colonic obstruction?
colonoscopy or barium enema
severe constipation resulting from an obstruction in the intestines
Obstipation