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46 Cards in this Set

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pancreatic endopeptidases
cleaves (hydrolyzes) inside
chymotripsin
elastase
trypsin

activated by trypsin
C E T
pancreatic exopeptidase
Cleaves at terminals
carboxypeptidase

activated by trypsin
activation of trypsinogen
excreted by pancreas
activated by enteropeptidase from enterocyte in Dd & Jm
pepsinogin activation
pepsinogin secreted from cheif
when proteins in stomach
in presence of pepsin & HCL
enteropeptidase action
activates trypsin
serine protease
membrane bound enzyme
what peptides can be absorbed?
aa's, di, tri & tetra
what powers PepT1
Na/K pump (at basolateral)
(Na out to interstit, K in)
dirves Na/H+ pump so H in lumen
H+/peptide pump (PepT1) brings in peptides (not aa's)
what is PepT1
H+, peptide cotransport
powered by Na/K
N/H+ drives out H+ to pick up peptides
aas just come in with Na
aa's absorbed with what co transport
Na
di, tri, & tetras absorbed with what cotransport
H+
what enzyme processes di, tri & tetra to single aa after absorbed
cytoplasmic peptidase
in enterocyte
how do aa's get into blood
facilitated transport
can have genetic errors in channel

in babies FTT, Diarrhea, hypo-proteinemia, edema
enteropeptidase deficiency
can't activate trypsin
can't absorb proteins
can't absorb neutral aa's
Hartnup
tryptophan & phenylalanine
defect in transporter with 2 subunits
cystinuria
genetic defect in cationic transporter of aa's
liver & kidney problems
sx of malnutrition
Lysinuria
type of carbohydrates absorbed in SI
monomers:
glucose, fructose, galactose
pancreas secreted enzyme for digestion of carbs
alpha amylase
membrane bound border enzyme for carb digestion in SI
disicharidases
(sucrase, maltase, lactase)
dextrinase (to hydrolyze starch to dextrin)
action of alpha amylase
breaks down polysacharides (amylase from starch & glycogen)
hydrolyzes alpha 1-4 bonds
secreted by pancreas
digestible dissacharides
sucrose = fructose + glucose
alpha 1-2
maltose = gluc + gluc
alpha 1-4
isomaltose = gluc + gluc
alpha 1-6
lactose = gluc + galac
beta 1-4
sucrase
membrane bound enzyme in SI
converts to gluc + fruc
maltase
membrane bound enzyme in SI
converts to gluc + gluc
lactase
membrane boune enzyme in SI
breaks BETA bond
gluc + galctose
mechanism to break bonds between carbs
hydrolyze glycosidic bonds
isomaltase
membrane bound enzyme in SI
breaks down dextrin to glucose
luminal carbohydrate transporters
SGLT1- gluc & galac
GLUT5- only fructose
carbohydrate transporters at basolateral membrane of enterocyte
GLUT2 (in lots of other places, too)
Action of SGLT1
2Na/carb cotransporter
Na/K pump drives (by K in to cell)
also brings water & CL back into cell
Action of GLUT5
transports fructose only
not ion dependent
facilitated carrier
structure of SGLT1
14 membrane domain
glycoprotein
glycoprotein
protein subject to post transcriptional modification by sugar (glycosylation)
action of GLUT2
facilitated carrier
mutation in gene for SGLT1
GGM
glucose, galactose malabsorption
severe watery diarrhea
resolved with fructose only diet
GGM
4 carb absorption associated dz's
GGM
Sucrase/Isomaltase deficiency
Lactase deficiency
Hypolactasia (auto recessive, predominates in world)
diarrhea at 3 months
(from sucrose)
sucrase/isomaltase defic
N term has sucrase
C term has isomaltase
intolerance to milk
after 2-5 years
auto-recessive
hypolactasia
cows milk intolerance cause
autoimmune
dectection of lactose intolerance
lact tol test
stool acidity
breath hydrogen
Lactose intolerance test
fast
drink liquid w/lactose
repeated measure of BG
gluc in blood = no intol
indication of lactose intolerance
absence of glucose in blood after fasting & lactose introduced
mechanism of stool acidity test
bacteria produce lactic acid
mechanism of breath hydrogen test
bacteria produce lactic acid
gluten intolerance
Celiac sprue
mechanism of Celiac Sprue
autoimmune
rxn to gluten, (wheat, barley, oats, soy)
flattening of lining of SI
poor absorption of nutrients
1/133 in US