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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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consequence of insulin acting on muscle
GLUT 4 receptor on surface
increase glucose uptake
glycolysis from exogenous sugar
protein synthesis
glycogen production
consequence of insulin acting on liver
GLUT 2 receptor
can't be saturated
increse glycogen synth
consequence of glucagon acting on liver
glycogen breakdown
glucose into bloodstream
gluconeogenesis late in fast
amino acids from muscle breakdown
consequence of removal of insulin from muscle
GLUT 4 out of membrane
burn glycogen
proteolysis
GLUT 1
in RBC, Brain Kidney
high affinity
GLUT 2
liver, pancreas, beta cell
lumen of intestine
high capacity
low affinity
GLUT 3
brain, kidney
high affinity

GLUT 4
skeletal muscle & adipose
(heart)
insulin stimulated
GLUT 5
SI
fructose absorption (no Na)
properties of IRS
insulin receptor substrate
phosphorylated when insulin bound to R
activate 2nd mess
transport GLUT 4 to membrane
increase transcription
alter existing proteins
hexokinase
first step glycolysis (requires ATP)
inhibited by G6PO3
phosphoglucose isomerase
glycolysis
G6 PO3 to F6 PO3
Phosphofructokinase
Glycolysis
F6 PO3 to F 1-6 BisPo3
(ATP & Mg)
Rate limiting step
allosteric regulation by PFK II & F2-6 BisPO3
aldolase
Glycolysis
F 1-6 BP to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (isomerizes with Glyceraldehyde 3 PO3)
GLucokinase
only in liver
high Km, low affinity
does not saturate
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
Gluconeogenesis
only in liver, kidney, intestinal epithel
gives Glucose + free Pi
(bypasses hexokinase step of glycolysis)
energy producing substrates in glycolysis
1-3 BPG (phosphoglycerate kinase)
PEP (pyruvate kinase)
Energy requiring enzymes in glycolysis
Gluco/Hexokinase
PFK
action of F 2-6 BP
inhibit gluconeogenesis
stimulate PFK I
removal of F 2-6 BP
F 2-6 BPase
activated by cAMP
stimulated by Glucagon & epi
(PFK II inhibited by cAMP)
phosphorylation of PFK II from
cAMP when glucagon or Epi stim
causes inhibition of glycolysis & stimulation of gluconeogenesis
in RBC

allosteric regulation Hgb binding O2
2,3 BPG
from 1,3 BPG (glycolysis)
recycles lactate
Cori cycle
lactate from RBC (or tissues under anaerobic)
to liver for gluconeogenesis
metabolism of galactose
galactose (kinase)
galactose 1P
gives UDP galac + glucose 1 P
UDP galac to UDP Glucose
deficiency in galactose Transferase & epimerase
increases galactose 1P
toxic to cells
deficiency in galactokinase
increases galactose
cataracts
metabolism of fructose
(aldolase B)
glyceraldehyde + dihydroxyacetone phosphate
then 2 glyceraldehyde 3 P
(net gain 2 ATP)
fructose joins glucose metabolism at...
glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
(for glycolysis)
triosephosphate isomerase
glyceraldehyde 3 P to dihydroxyacetone P
galactose joins glucose metabolism at...
glucose 1 phosphate
(for glycogen synth)
pyruvate kinase
PEP to pyruvate
(thru enolpyruvate)
high levels of 2,3 BPG will allow...
easier release of O2 to tissues (upregulated in hypoxia?)