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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the arteries that come off of the celiac trunk?
splenic artery
left gastric
common hepatic
which arteries supply the greater curvature of the stomach?
r/l gastroepiploic
which arteries supply the lesser curvature of the stomach?
r/l gastric arteries
path of blood from the common hepatic artery
gastroduodenal artery branches off
right gastric artery branches off
common hepatic continues as hepatic artery proper
R/L hepatic arteries branch off of that
cystic artery branches off of R hepatic artery
where are there good, strong arterial anastomoses around the stomach?
R/L gastroepiploics
R/L gastric arteries
where is there poor anastomoses to the stomach?
short gastrics (seen when the splenic artery is blocked)
what causes esophageal varices?
anastomoses between left gastric vein and azygous vein

(portal-caval shunting)
what causes caput medusae?
anastomoses between paraumbilical vein and inferior epigastric vein

(portal-caval shunting)
what causes external hemorrhoids?
anastomoses between superior and inferior rectal veins

(portal-caval shunting)
what are the causes of portal HTN?
prehepatic: portal/splenic vein obstruction (thrombosis)
intrahepatic: cirrhosis, schistosomiasis, tumor
posthepatic: CHF, pericarditis, Budd-Chiari syndrome (hepatic vein occlusion)
in addition to the occlusions that cause esoph varices, ext hemorrhoids, and caput medusae, what other portal-caval anastamoses occur?
retroperitoneal vein to renal vein
retroperitoneal vein to paravertebral vein
where does the blood come from in the inferior epigastric vein?
removes blood from liver via hepatic veins
falciform ligament
liver to anterior abdominal wall
ligamentum teres
hepatoduodenal ligament
additional info
liver to duo
portal triad (hepatic artery, common bile duct, portal vein)
can be compressed btwn thumb and finger to slow bleeding (in epiploic foramen of Winslow)
gastrohepatic ligament
additional info
lesser curvature of stomach to liver
gastric arteries
separates R lesser and greater sacs
can be cut during surgery to access lesser sac
gastrocolic ligament
additional info
greater curvature of stomach to transverse colon
epiploic arteries
in greater omentum
gastrosplenic ligament
additional info
greater curvature of stomach to spleen
no arteries
separates L greater and lesser sacs
splenorenal ligament
additional info
connects spleen to posterior abdominal wall
splenic artery and vein
layers of the digestive tract starting closest to lumen?
mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa)
submucosa (contains submucosal/Meissner's plexus)
muscularis externa (inner circular layer, myenteric/Auerbach's plexus, outer longitudinal)
fxn of the lamina propria
fxn of the muscularis mucosa
where is Meissner's plexus located?
within the submucosa, between the muscularis mucosa and the inner ciruclar layer of the muscularis externa
where is the Auerbach plexus located?
between the inner ciruclar and out longitudinal layers of muscle
fxn of Meissner's plexus
regulates local secretions, blood flow, and absorption
contains cell bodies of some parasympathetic terminal effector neurons
fxn of Auerbach's plexus
to coordinate the motility of the gut; contains cell bodies of parasympathetic terminal effector neurons
what are the abdominal layers?
PETTIE: don't be pettie about your abs

extraperitoneal tissue
transversalis fascia
tranversus abdominus
internal oblique
external oblique
where are the only GI submucosal glands
duodenum submucosa, they secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acid
what are Brunner's glands
glands in the duo submucosa that secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acid
hypertrophied in peptic ulcer dz
what is the basal electric frequency of the stomach
3 Hz
what is the basal electric frequency of the duodenum?
12 Hz
what is the basal electric frequency of the ileum?
8-9 Hz
what is the pectinate line
separates the hindgut from the part of the anus that is derived from ectoderm
pathology above the pectinate line
internal hemorrhoids (not painful, visceral innervation)
blood flow above pectinate line
superior rectal artery (branch of IMA) --> inferior rectal vein --> IMV --> portal system
blood flow below the pectinate line
inferior rectal artery (branch off of pudendal nerve) --> inferior rectal vein --> internal pudendal vein --> internal iliac vein --> IVC
pathology occurring below pectinate line
external hemorrhoids (painful, somatic innervation)
squamous cell carcinoma
path of bile from liver
bile enters R and L hepatic ducts --> common hepatic duct
flows into cystic duct to enter GB
flows out of GB to enter cystic duct, then common bile duct (inside hepatoduodenal ligament)
common bile duct passes behind 1st part of duo and joins with pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla
hepatopancreatic ampulla opens into major duodenal papilla opens at the 2nd part of duo
what is the order (from lateral to medial) of the structures in the femoral triangle?
femoral nerve, artery, vein
what is the order from lateral to medial of the structures in the femoral sheath?
femoral artery, vein, deep inguinal lymph nodes (contained in canal) (femoral nerve is not in the triangle)
between what 2 structures does the rectus abdmoninus lie?
transversalis fascia
transversus abdominus
describe the pathwway leading to an indirect inguinal hernia
internal (deep) inguinanl ring
external (superficial) inguinal ring
into scrotum
(covered by all three layers of spermatic fascia)
where does teh indirect inguinal hernia enter the external inguinal ring?
lateral to the inferior epigastric artery
describe pathway of direct inguinal hernia
enters at external inguinal ring (covered by transversalis fascia only)
what are the layers of spermatic fascia from deep to superficial?
internal spermatic fascia
cremasteric fascia
external spermatic fascia
where doe the direct inguinal hernia enter the external inguinal ring
medial to the inferior epigastric artery
(MDs dont' LIe)
where is the femoral hernia
below and lateral to the pubic tubercle
(women most commonly)
what is contained in Hesselbach's triangle?
inferior epigastric artery
lateral border of inferior rectus
inguinal ligament