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46 Cards in this Set

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Gastrin action
stimulates gastric acid secretion and growth of oxyntic gland mucosa
where is gastrin released?
gastric antrum and perhaps duodenum.
what stimulates release of gastrin?
peptides, amino acids, gastric distension, and stimulation of vagus n.
CCK action
gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme and bicarb secretion; growth of exocrine pancreas; inhibits gastric emptying
CCK released from...
duodenum and jejunum
CCK release stimulated by...
peptides, aa, and >8C fatty acids; acid to a lesser extent.
secretin action
pancreatic bicarb secretion; biliary bicarb secretion; growth of exocrine pancreas; pepsin secretion; inhibits gastric acid secretion and trophic effect of gastrin
secretin from...
duodenum
secretin stimulated by...
acid; to lesser extent, fat.
GIP action
insulin release; inhibits gastric acid secretion
GIP from...
duodenum and jejunum
GIP release stimulated by...
glucose, aa, and fatty acids.
Motilin action
gastric and intestinal motility;
motilin from...
duodenum and jejunum
motilin release stim by...
nerves, fat, and acid
Paracrines
act on cells in immediate vicinity; not through blood stream; eg somatostatin and histamine
somatostatin action
inhibits gastrin release and release of other peptide hormones and gastric acid secretion
SS from...
GI mucosa and pancreatic islets
release induced by...
acid
release inhibited by...
vagal stimulation
histamine action
stimulates gastric acid secretion
histamine from...
oxyntic gland mucosa and ECL cells
histamine response stimulated by...
gastrin
Neurocrines
released from neurons by AP; diffuse across synaptic cleft to target tissue; VIP, GRP, and enkephalins
VIP action
stimulates intestinal and pancreatic secretion; relaxes sphincters and gut circular smooth muscle
VIP from...
cells in mucosa and smooth muscle of GI tract
bombesin or GRP peptide
stimulates gastrin release; released by cells in gastric mucosa
Enkephalins
stimulates smooth mm contraction; inhibits intestinal secretionfrom cells in GI mucosa and smooth mm
what organs does the liver touch?
diaphragm, kidney, and stomach
portal triad
branch of hepatic portal vein, branch of hepatic artery, bile duct, and usually ignored as a lymphatic
intrahepatic ductule
connects bile duct to biliary tree
space of mall
small space between the outer hepatocytes and the CT stroma of the portal canal; it is the beginning of lymphatic drainage into the liver
liver drainage
terminal hepatic venule to hepatic vein to the IVC
classical lobule of liver
six sided with corners of portal triads and a center which is the central vein; represents anatomic organization
portal lobule
triangle with three central veins and portal triad in the middle; describes one of exocrine functions, secretion of bile.
portal acinus
diamond with long axis between two central veins and short axis between two adjacent portal veins. takes into acct the metabolic and exocrine function of the liver.
hepatic sinusoids
conduct blood from portal vein and hepatic artery towards the central vein; they run between anastomosing plates of hepatocytes
space of disse
fluid filled space that separates the endothelial cells from the hepatocytes
hepatic stellate cell- Ito cell
in the space of disse, it stores hepatic vitamin A in form of retinyl esters. in some processes it bcomes activated, and then it makes types I and III collagen, producing a fibrotic response. it is also highly contractile and can increase vascular resistance along the sinusoids.
portal acinus
diamond with long axis between two central veins and short axis between two adjacent portal veins. takes into acct the metabolic and exocrine function of the liver.
hepatic sinusoids
conduct blood from portal vein and hepatic artery towards the central vein; they run between anastomosing plates of hepatocytes
space of disse
fluid filled space that separates the endothelial cells from the hepatocytes
hepatic stellate cell- Ito cell
in the space of disse, it stores hepatic vitamin A in form of retinyl esters. in some processes it bcomes activated, and then it makes types I and III collagen, producing a fibrotic response. it is also highly contractile and can increase vascular resistance along the sinusoids.
phasic contraction
contraction/relaxation in seconds; esophagus, distal 1/3 of stomach, small intestine
tonic contraction
minutes to hours; LES, orad stomach, ileocecal sphincter, internal anal sphincter
slow waves
originate in the interstitial cells of cajal