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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what predominately controls the regulation of saliva?
parasympathetic nervous signals
where in the brainstem do PNS signals come from?
superior/inferior salivatory nuclei
what excites saliva secretion?
1)taste/tactile stimulation in the mouth
2)from CNS- appetite center
3) reflexes from stomach duodenum- irritation/nausea
where is the sympathetic nervous stimulation come from?
the superior cervical ganglia
what is a substance that spilts blood proteins to form bradykinin (dilation)?
what are the two functions of GI tract secretion?
digestive enzymes and mucous
what type of cells are on the surface of epithelium and respond to mechanical stimulation?
Single Cell Mucous Glands (Goblet Cells)
what do Single Cell Mucous glands do?
secrete mucous directly on the epithelial surface to act as a lubricant
what are the deep invaginations of the epithelium into the mucosa?
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
What do the Crypts of Lieberkuhn do?
they are specialized secretory cells that secrete fluid
where are the tubular glands located?
in the stomach and the upper duodenum
what are examples of complex glands that lie outside of the the walls of the GI tract?
salivary, pancreatic, hepatic
what is the function of complex glands?
digestion/emulsification of food
what are the three main things that stimulate glands to release contents?
1) tactile stimulation
2) chemical stimulation
3) gut wall distension

(direct contact and the ENS)
what nervous system strongly increases secretion by glands?
parasympathetic nervous system
what are the two main parasympathetic nerves involved in secretions?
glossopharyngeal and vagus
what are glands in the distal portion of the large intestine innervated by?
pelvic parasympathetic nerves
what effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on gland secretions?
increases secretions, but effect is to slightly increase secretions
what do hormones do in the stomach and duodenum?
increase secretions when food enters the stomach or the duodenum
how do substances get from the capillary to the base of the grandular cell?
diffusion or active transport (Na/K+ pump)
what happens in the Golgi?
secretory materials come in from the ER....they are modified, added to, concentrated and discharged into the cytoplasm in the form of secretory vesicles
what is the role of calcium in exocytosis?
causes the vesicle to fuse with the membrane...the vesicle interior is exposed and the contents are released
in the secretion of water and electrolytes, which ion is actively transported into the interior? Then what happens?
Cl...then Na follows and moves into the cell....water enters and the cell swells...pressure in the cell causes the rupture of the secretory border of the cell
what are the functions of mucous?
1) lubrication and protection
2) adheres to food particles and the epithelium easily
3) coats materials and prevents them from contacting the mucosa
4) low resistance for movement (slippery)
5) buffer- neutralizes stomach acids and other acids
what glands are saliva secreted from?
submandibular, sublingual, parotid, and buccal glands
what is ptyalin?
a protein contained in serous protein of saliva for starch digestion?
what is mucin?
a protein in mucus protein of saliva for lubrication and protection
what type of glands secrete only serous?
what type of glands secrete only mucus?
what type of glands secrete both serous and mucus?
submandibular and sublingual
what happens to saliva during maximal secretions?
it is very similar to ECF (lots of NaCl) because there is not as much time for modifications
what two ions does saliva contain a great amount of ?
K+ and bicarbonate
the NaCl content compared to plasma?
much lower
what happens to Na and K concentrations as saliva is processed?
Na decreases and K increases
what does Cl do in response to Na and K movement?
is reabsorbed (lessened content in the saliva)
what does HCO3 do in response to other ions?
it is secreted out of the duct (increases in saliva)
what two ions are reabsorbed back into the duct?
Na and Cl
what does the reabsorption of Na and Cl do to the saliva?
makes it more hypotonic and alkaline....helps nutralize the bacteria that generate the acids
what is the electrical potential that is generated inside the cell?
negative because more Na pumped into the gland than K that are pumped into the saliva cells