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60 Cards in this Set

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What does paraalimentary mean?
Supplementary tract pertaining to food and digestion
What are the 4 major para-alimentary organs?
1. Salivary Glands

2. Pancreas

3. Liver

4. Gallbladder / Biliary Tree
What are the 2 main functions of the salivary glands?
1. Produce digestive enzymes (ie amylase)

2. Immune Protection - lysozymes and IgA prodction
What are the 2 main exocrine functions of the pancreas?
1. Produce bicarb - neutralize stomach acid

2. Produce Digestive enzymes - amylase, lipase, trypisinogen
What are the 2 main functions of the liver?
1. Synthetic - ex make bile

2. Clearing - ex secretes copper via biliary secretion
How much fluid do the salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas secrete every day?
Salivary glands = 1 Liter

Liver = 1 liter

Pancreas = 2 liters

4 Liters total!
Where are minor salivary glands found?
In the mouth and esophagus
What type of cells are seen in minor salivary glands?
Mucinous
ALL components of the pancreas proper are derived from what?
A COMMON stem cell
What describes the pancreas wrt to peritoneum?
Head neck body = secondarily retroperitoneal

Tail = paritoneal
The pancrease is embedded in what, and has what embedded throughout?
FAT
What are the 3 components of the pancreas?
1. Acinar

2. Islet

3. Ducts
What are the 2 functions of the pancreatic duct?
1. Conduit for secretions of ACINAR cells to lumen of duodenum

2. Secretes BICARBONATE to neutralize acid in duodenum received from stomach
What are the 2 reasons why stomach acid must be neutralized?
1. Prevent duodenal injury

2. Prevent inactivation of pancreatic enzymes
What surrounds the lumen of the duct?
Collagen collar
What immediately lines the pancreatuc ducts?
glandular cells
What construct in the pancreas is important for delivery of acinar cell secretions into the duct?
The smooth transition of the acinar cells into the duct
The smooth transition structure raises what hypothesis?
That there is a common stem cell for ductal AND acinar cells
The ductal cells are what, and secrete what?
Are GLANDULAR, and secrete MUCINS and BICARBONATE
Islet cells in the pancreas produce what?
Insulin and Glucagon
What is the cell shape of an acinar cell?
Pyramidal shape
The apical aspect of the acinar cell houses what?
Zymogen granules
Why are zymogen forms of digestive enzymes seen in acinar cells?
Because we don't want them active inside the cell and destroying cell

recall: firework analogy
What fail safe system is in place in case a zymogen gets activated?
Acinar cell has proteins to degrade accidentally activated enzymes
The liver is composed of what 5 items?
1. Hepatocytes

2. Bile ducts

3. Arteries

4. Veins

5. Nerves
How does the direction of bile flow compare to blood flow in the liver?
It is OPPOSITE
What are the 2 blood flows into the liver?
1. Portal Vein

2. Hepatic artery
The liver surface is lined by what?
Mesothilial cells called the CAPSULE
What does the capsule contain?
nerve endings for sensation
What is the portal triad?
Distinctive feature in the liver containing:

1. A Branch of the hepatic Artery

2. A branch of the Portal Vein

3. A branch of the Bile Duct
What is a terminal venule ("central vein")?
veins found at the center of a "classic" hepatic lobule
What is the function of the terminal venule?
They receive the blood mixed in the liver sinusoids and return it to circulation via the hepatic vein
What aspect of the terminal venule allows for exchange?
It's fenestrated capillaries
What are the 4 sections of the microanatomy of the liver?
1. Portal Tract

2. Limiting Plate

3. Cords

4. Terminal Venule
The cords have what type of endothelial cells?
Fenestrated to facilitate exchange

But small enough so RBC's can't get through
Cords consist of what?
Epithelial histocytes arranged together and separated by vascular sinusoids
What is the space in which blood flows called?
Sinusoids
The blood is separated from the hepatocytes by what type of endothelium?
Fenestrated to allow for exchange
How do hepatocytes regenerate?
They can enter MITOSIS again

Thus, get hepatocyte turnover

Different than in gut where crypts produce all new cells
What 2 items are NOT seen in the hepatic cords?
1. Collagen

2. Basement Membrane

Allows for MAXIMUM exchange!!
What is the space of disse?
The space between the endothelium (fenestrated capillary) and the heptocyte
What type of collagen is seen in the space of disse?
Type III
Starting from the sinusoidal lumen and going out, what would you encounter?
Sinusoidal lume --> blood --> endothelial cell --> space of disse --> hepatocyte
What is a bile canaliculus?
is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes

formed by grooves on some of the lateral faces of hepatocytes
What do the bile canaliculi become?
The bile canaliculi merge and form bile ductules, which eventually become common hepatic duct
Does bile flow into the blood?
No, there are tight junctions which prevent that
The liver is arbitrarily divided into what?
3 Zones
How are the 3 liver zones created?
Based upon blood flow direction and the GRADIENT of nutrient and oxygen concentrations as blood flows

Recall goldfish example
Hepatocytes near the terminal venule see what concentration of nutrients and oxygen?

Those located after the portal tract
LOW near terminal venule

High after tract
What defines zone 1?
Those hepatocytes exposed to the blood right after entry from the portal tract
What defines zone 2?
Between 1 and 3
What defines zone 3?
Those hepatocytes which see the blood right before exit into the terminal venule
Which enzyme is rich in zone 3?
p450
Which zone is most sensitive to ischemic damage?
Zone 3
What is the function of the gallbladder?
Stores and releases bile
The gallbladder stores bile until what?
CCK stimulates contraction and emptying
Is the gallbladder essential?
NO
What is the appearance of the gallbladder?
Honeycombed
What are the 3 components of the gallbladder?
1. Epithelium

2. Lamina Propria

3. Muscularis propria
How does the function of the gallbladder differ from the lumin gut?
Gall bladder can and DOES alter fluid concentration