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18 Cards in this Set

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Wade-Davis Bill
Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Winter Davis of Maryland formulated this much stricter plan of Reconstruction. It made Confederate States temporarily ruled by military governments, required half of the white males to take an oath of allegience before drafting a new state constitution, and restricted political power to hardcore Unionists in each Southern State. Passed on the final day of the 1864 congressional session.
Significance: end slavery, protect Black Rights, destroy the planter class.
Black Codes
Series of laws modeled on old slave codes that restricted the rights of the freedmen.
14th Amendment
Passed by Congress in June 1866. Made freedmen citizens, and prevented any state from "abridging the privileges and immunities" of any citizen, depriving any citizen of "life, liberty, or property without due process of law," and denying any person "equal protection" under the law.
Significance: most important amendment in Civil Rights cases in both race and gender.
Sharecropping
Plan in which farmers rented land from its owner in return for a percentage of crops at the year's end. Had higher status and offered greater personal freedom than being a wage laborer
Freedman's Bureau
Organization created in 1865 to provide care for war refugees and to settle the freedmen on abandoned lands; attempts to further expand its powers became a point of dispute between the Republicans and Johnson.
Ku Klux Klan
unofficial arm of the Democratic party parlimentary organization that used violence to damage the Republican Party and prevent blacks from voting
15th Amendment
February 1869
Congress
Forbade any state from denying the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Last major piece of Reconstruction legislation.
Mississippi Plan
Decision by Democrats to use as much violence as necessary to carry state elections. Inagurated in 1875.
Compromise of 1877
Republicans promised to remove federal troops from the South and not oppose the new Democratic state governments, while Democrats dropped their opposition to Hayes' election and promised to respect the rights of the freedmen.
Railroad Time
Division of the country into four time zones in 1883 by the railroads in order to standardize their schedules. Symbolic of the power of corporations.
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie preached for the rich to act as agents for the poor, "doing for them better than they would or could do for themselves."
Significance: American individualism
The Great Railroad Strike
1877
the country's first nationwide strike left 100 people dead and $10 million worth of railroad property in rubble.
Significance: the new battle over the new fruits of industrialization
Meat Inspection Act
Congress in 1906
authorized the Secretary of
Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906
statute regulating the food industry that passed after the publication of the Jungle
Keating Owens Act
Congress 1916
Anti-child-labor act that forbid goods manufactured by children from crossing state lines.
CCC
1933
Civilian Conservation Corps took unmarried 18 to 25 year olds from relief rolls nad sent them into the woods and fields to plant trees, build parks, and fight soil erosion. Provided 25 million young men with jobs.
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority- a massive public works project created in 1933, helped to relieve unemployment but also made a continuing contribution to regional planning. TVA built dams, improved navigation, and generate cheap electric power.
NRA
National Recovery Administration aimed directly at controlling competition