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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the basic causes of natural disasters?
Natural Diasaters are a big release of energy
Where does all of this energy come from?
The big bang--all matter/energy exploded at one point
Solar nebula
Clouds condense, collapse and gravitational potential energy exchanged for kinetic energy
What happened with earth accreated?
Orbital bodies stuck together, the orbital energy was transferred to heat --> stored heat was primordial heat
What three levels did the earth separate into?
Core, mantle, crust
(innermost --> outermost)
Where does heat output FROM the earth come from?
Radioactive decay (from nuclear chemicals decaying and thus giving off heat) and primordial heat (from initial collisions during earth's formation)
What are the fuel for geological hazards?
Radioactive decay and primordial heat
What is the fuel for meteorological hazards?
Solar energy--most solar radiation in visible light, 4000x the amount coming from the earth
What is the energy for cosmological disasters?
Orbital kinetic energy transfered on impacts (e.g., a meteor hitting us)
What is the principle of thermal convection?
Hot stuff rises, cold stuff falls
Convection focuses energy output into
Plate techtonics and earthquakes
Mountain building
Where is the earth most/least heated?
Most at the equator, least at the poles
Convection causes...
air from the equator to be transported to the poles
Air moving away from the equator (north in the northern hemisphere)
moves farthur east than surrounding air
Air moving towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere)
Moves slower than surrounding air
Low and high pressure zones are caused by the
Coriolis effect
Polar Easterlies are
Cold air from poles pushing west
Trade winds are
cold air returning to equator pushing west
Westerlies are
Mid-lattitude surface air flowing north pushing east
Air hotter at the bottom than at top, so where convection, weather, and clouds occur
Area above troposphere; O2->O->O3 and protects life; hotter/lighter than troposphere; traps particles, inc. volcanic ash
Why Earth?
Earth formed large enough; retains heat; mantle convects (volcanoes; plate tectonics and earthquakes); core freezes (from core pressure; drives magnetic field)