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60 Cards in this Set

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When a verb has an –ing ending it is called?
A gerund.
Can a gerund be the subject or the object in a sentence?
Both. [Smoking is bad for your health. (subject) I like going to parties. (object of a verb) He’s crazy about playing soccer. (object of a preposition)]
The two general uses of a gerund are as?
A noun or after some verbs. (Traveling is a waste of time and money. I enjoy writing stories. She avoids seeing him. Stop doing that!)
Admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, discuss, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, prevent, quit, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand, etc. are all examples of verbs that can be combined with a gerund by?
The verb + gerund structure.
Give up, get through, put off and keep on are examples of?
Phrasal verbs that can combined with gerunds
Can gerunds be used after prepositions?
Yes. (I look forward to meeting you.)
Combine gerund, eating, with the prepositional phrase, be excited about?
I’m excited about eating.
Combine gerund, visiting, with the prepositional phrase, be worried about?
I’m worried about visiting.
Combine gerund, nagging, with the prepositional phrase complain about /of?
Don’t complain of his nagging.
Combine gerund, fishing, with the prepositional phrase dream about/of?
He loves to dream about fishing.
Combine gerund, eating, with the prepositional phrase talk about/of?
All he can do is talk of eating.
Combine gerund, reading, with the prepositional phrase think about/of?
All she can do is think about reading.
Combine gerund, coming, with the prepositional phrase apologize for?
I apologize for coming so soon.
Combine gerund, planning, with the prepositional phrase be responsible for?
They are responsible for planning.
Thank (someone) for, blame (someone) for, forgive (someone) for, have a reason for, have an excuse for, insist on, keep (someone) from, prevent (someone) from, prohibit (someone) from, stop (someone) from, believe in, be interested in, participate in, succeed in and many others are examples of?
Prepositional phrases that can be combined with gerunds.
Can gerunds be combined with hear / listen to / notice / see / watch / feel / find / catch?
Yes. Verb + somebody + gerund [I saw him crossing the street. NOTE: I only saw part of the action. If I saw the whole action from beginning to end, we should say: I saw him cross the street.]
A gerund can be added after verbs like spend / waste / lose + nouns like time / money, to express the idea of ?
Using up time or wealth. (I spent a lot of time looking for a present. Don’t waste your money gambling.)
A gerund can follow verbs like sit / stand / lie + a place to express the idea of?
Passing the time. (I sat in the waiting room reading a magazine.)
Can go + gerund be used?
Yes. (Did you go skating last weekend?)
Can a gerund be added after expressions such as I’m busy, It’s no use/good, It’s worth, What’s the use, She couldn’t help, He had some difficulty?
Yes.
In formal English, can a possessive adjective or noun be used to modify a gerund?
Yes. (I was shocked at his coming. I was shocked at John’s coming.)
In informal English, can an objective pronoun or noun be used to modify a gerund?
Often, yes. I was shocked at him coming. I was shocked at John coming.
An infinitive is formed by "to" plus?
A verb in base form. (I want to go home. I’m glad to hear from Mary.)
Can an infinitive be used as a subject?
Yes. To learn a new language is comparatively easy for kids.
Can an infinitive and a verb be structured this way: verb + infinitive?
Yes. (He promised to help us.)
If two infinitives are joined with and/or, what should happen to the second infinitive?
It should be a bare infinitive. (He promised to come and help us.)
Are agree, appear, ask, decide, expect, hope, intend, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, seem and want examples of verbs that can be followed by the infinitive?
Yes.
Can intend also be followed by a gerund with no difference in meaning from intend + infinitive?
Yes (I intend to go to the park. I intend going to the park.)
Is the structure verb + pronoun/noun + infinitive unusual?
No. (She reminded me to buy some vegetables.)
When these verbs are used in the passive, they are followed?
Immediately by an infinitive. (I was reminded to buy some vegetables.)
Are advise, allow, ask, encourage, expect, force, invite, need, order, permit, remind, require, tell, want, warn examples of verbs followed by a pronoun/proper noun and preceded by the infinitive?
No, followed both by pronoun/noun and infinitive.
Can advise also be followed by a gerund if there is no (pro)noun object?
Yes. (I advised him to buy a digital camera. I advised buying a digital camera.)
When combining adjective with infinitive, we are generally describing?
People, not things. They describe feelings and emotions, express willingness or unwillingness, and refer to people’s character. (I’m sorry to hear that. I’m glad to hear from you. She’s reluctant to go with you. He was mean to say that.)
Afraid, amazed, anxious, ashamed, astonished, careful, certain, content, delighted, determined. Disappointed, eager, fortunate, glad, happy, hesitant, likely, lucky, motivated, pleased, prepared, proud, ready, relieved, reluctant, sad, shocked, sorry, stunned, surprised, upset, and willing are all examples of?
Adjectives that can be combined with the infinitive to describe feelings and emotions.
Commonly used pronouns that combine with infinitives, in the structure (pronoun + infinitive) include?
Something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anyone, and nothing. (Ask someone to come with you.)
In the following example: “She came to Toronto (in order) to study English.”, the infinitive is used?
To express purpose.
To express a purpose, we can also use for, but it is usually followed by?
A noun/object. (She came here for money. She came here to borrow some money.)
In the expression be used for, “for” can be followed by?
A gerund. (A knife is used for cutting things.)
Infinitives are often used with too and?
Enough. (I’m too tired to go for a walk. You’re good enough to be a teacher.)
Between too and enough, which word implies a negative result?
Too. (Compare: I’m too tired to go for a walk. I’m so tired that I can’t go for a walk.)
When enough precedes an infinitive, it always follows?
An adjective. (He’s tall enough to compete. You are smart enough to handle the problem.)
Usually with only, an infinitive can be used to talk about?
An unexpected event which can be unpleasant. (They rushed to the railway station (only) to find that the train had left.)
It’s so kind of you, It’s my dream, It’s unnecessary, He’s the first., and I want are examples of?
Typical expressions that precede an infinitive.
Can let, make, have, or help be used with a bare infinitive?
Yes. (I let/made/had/helped my cousin carry the suitcase.)
Can help be followed by either the infinitive or the bare infinitive?
Yes. [I helped my cousin (to) carry the suitcase.]
Begin, can’t bear, can’t stand, continue, hate, like, love, and start are examples of verbs that do not change their meaning when used with either?
The infinitive or gerund.
If verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive, do they differ in meaning depending on the choice?
Sometimes with no difference in meaning, and sometimes with a change in meaning.
The verb start in “I start working” and “I start to work” is an example of a verb that?
Has no change in meaning whether it uses a gerund or the infinitive.
If the main verb is the continuous form/a continuous tense, which should be chosen, an infinitive or a gerund?
An infinitive, not a gerund is usually used. (I was starting to work.)
“She stopped to cry” and “She stopped crying” are examples of a verb that changes in meaning depending on whether it uses?
The infinitive or a gerund. (I regret to say that it’s not a good idea. I regret sending you that picture.)
When forget is followed by a gerund it usually is used?
In negative sentences or questions. (I’ll never forget…I can’t forget…Have you ever forgotten…? Can you ever forget…?)
The passive form of the simple infinitive, to do, is?
To be done. (It is to be done by tomorrow.)
The passive form of the simple gerund, doing, is?
Being done. (Even as we speak, it is being done.)
The active form of the past gerund, having been done, is?
Having done. (Having done all he could, he quit)
The passive form of the past infinitive, to have done, is?
To have been done. (It was to have been done yesterday.)
“I didn’t expect to be invited” and “I appreciated being invited” are examples of, respectively?
Passive infinitive and gerund
“The snow seemed to have stopped” and “I appreciate having had the opportunity to meet the president” are examples of, respectively?
Past infinitive and gerund
The event expressed by a past infinitive or past gerund happened?
Before the time of the main verb.
“He’s lucky to have been given a scholarship” and “I appreciate having been invited” are examples of , respectively?
Past passive infinitive and gerund.
Can need be followed by a gerund or passive infinitive?
Usually an infinitive follows need. (I need to talk to you.) In some cases, a gerund may follow need, especially when the gerund has a passive meaning. The situations often involve fixing or improving something. (The apartment needs cleaning. The apartment needs to be cleaned.)