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51 Cards in this Set

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What is stenosis? What problem does it cause?
Stenosis is the narrowing of blood vessels, and it interrupts laminar flow (ie. smooth bloodflow).
What is the picture from the 1st exam review that wasn't on the 1st exam? What does it do?
It's duplex ultrasonography, which is used to reveal blood flow and vessel structure.
What happens during ultrasound?
The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect).
What age-related issue commonly shows up in ultrasound?
Plaque buildup in the carotid artery.
How does x-ray work? What do we see? What don't see we?
An x-ray passes electromagnetic radiation through the subject’s body. Smaller atoms in tissue do not absorb x-ray photons so they don’t show up, but larger atoms like calcium do absorb photons.
What is used in CT scans? Why?
CT scans (computerized tomography) typically use an iodinated molecule (that’s injected) because it’s very effective at absorbing radiation.
How can MR images be improved?
Gadolinium-based agents are used to improve the resolution of MR images because it decreases the T1 relaxation times.
Compare SPECT vs. PET
SPECT tracers emit a single gamma ray, while PET emits positrons that release two gamma rays simultaneously in exactly opposite directions. PET has a 4mm resolution but is much more expensive than SPECT, which has an 8-10mm resolution.
What causes us to see an American flag in the slide we saw in class? Why?
Fatigue or adaptation in the cones don’t transmit light correctly. Instead, they subtract the colors we were looking at from white.
What’s responsible for dilation/constriction in the eye?
The sphincter muscle interweaved with the iris.
What mechanism is at work when photons get absorbed?
Opsin proteins isomerize from 11-cis retnal to all-trans retinal
Where does it come from? How does the visual system use vitamin A?
One molecule of beta-carotene can be cleaved into 2 molecules of vitamin A, which is then oxidized into 11-cis-retinal.
What does CK stand for? How does it work? Who shouldn’t have it?
CK is conductive keratoplasty. It uses mild heat from radio waves to shrink the collagen in the cornea to help farsighted patients and ppl with presbyopia. Nearsighted patients cannot have CK.
Compare CK and LASIK
CK is non-invasive, whereas LASIK involves cutting ocular tissue.
Compare CK and LTK
LTK is laser-based and doesn’t work as deeply as CK, so it’s not as effective.
What is a cataract? How does it have a negative impact on vision?
A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s natural lens. This allows less light to reach the retina.
What tests are used for cataracts?
Visual acuity test, pupil dilation, tonometry, glare testing, slit lamp exam
What is the most widely used treatment for cataracts? What does it involve?
A surgery called phacoemulsification, which involves breaking up the cataract and sucking it out.
What is glaucoma? What physiological mechanism causes it?
A disease that occurs when the intraocular pressure builds up within the eye. It’s caused by problems with efficient drainage of the aqueous humor.
Compare glaucoma and AMD
Glaucoma affects peripheral vision, whereas AMD affects central vision.
What does the aqueous humor do?
Nourishes lens and cornea, and removes unwanted debris.
What are the types of glaucoma? Which is more common? What causes them?
Primary and secondary. Primary is more common.
Which type of glaucoma is sudden? Which is gradual?
Closed angle is sudden, open angle is gradual.
What are the less intense treatment options for glaucoma?
Timolol (oral or eye drops) reduces aqueous humour production. Diamox is a diuretic.
What are the more intense treatment options for glaucoma?
Yag Laser Therapy for angle closure glaucoma removes a bit of the iris to help drainage. ALT and SLT for open angle also help with drainage.
Compare wet vs. dry AMD
Dry is formation of drusen. Wet is formation of abnormal blood vessels and leakage in the retina.
What are the less intense treatments for AMD?
Anti-inflammatory meds, anti-oxidant diet, anti-VEGF agents
What are the more intense treatments for AMD?
Photocoagulation (low intensity laser) and photodynamic therapy for wet AMD, but only 15% of cases are treatable.
What is diabetic retinopathy?
Damage to the eye's retina that occurs with long-term diabetes
What is retinitis pigmentosa?
An eye disease in which there is damage to the retina. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye that converts light images to nerve signals and sends them to the brain.
What causes sensorineural hearing loss? What causes conductive hearing loss?*
Age and loud noises cause sensorineural. Otosclerosis (hardening bone in the middle ear) and infections cause conductive hearing loss.
What is nystagmus? How do you test for it?
Nystagmus is oscillating movement of the eye. Best test is the caloric test (temp. changes between both ears), and a positional test work (moving the head and the body).
What is the most common form of vertigo? What causes it?
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It's caused by stimulation of the vestibular system by displaced particles in the inner ear fluid.
What is "glaucoma of the ear" called? What is it?
Meniere's disease. It's when there's too much fluid pressure in the middle ear.
Compare vestibular ataxia vs. cupulolithiasis vs. ampullary disequilibrium
Vestibular ataxia deals with central processing problems. Cupulolithiasis and ampullary disequilibrium are inner ear problems.
What treatment is particularly effective for paroxysmal positional vertigo?
Modified Epley Procedure
What are the meds for vertigo? How do they work?
Antihistamines and dramamine. They inhibit transmission of information to the brain.
What are the surgeries for vertigo?
Artificial ventilating device and gentamicin injection for Meniere's disease
Compare wet vs. dry AMD
Dry AMD involves drusen (cellular debris) whereas wet AMD has inflammation and neovascularization bc vessel integrity is compromised. Wet can have drusen.
What are low-level treatments for AMD?
NSAIDS and anti-oxidants
Describe why and how there's crossover of the binocular visual field
Since the right visual field goes to the left hemisphere, there has to be a crossover from the right eye to the left hemisphere. This occurs on the nasal side of the right eye, meaning that the temporal side of the left eye (which is perceiving the part of the right visual field) stays in the left hemisphere.
What's the order of visual mechanisms?
Proton comes in and isomerizes retinal from cis to trans, which releases opsin that activates transducin, which activates phosphodiesterase
When are visual ion channels open? Closed? What's another name for a closed cell?
Open in the dark and closed in the light. Another name for a closed cell is hyperpolarized.
Where are cones located?
In the macula
What kind of lenses are prescribed for farsightedness?
Convex lenses
What's the treatment for diabetic retinopathy?
Zap blood vessels with low intensity lasers by first injecting visudine (intravenously) to the target area.
How does an x-ray machine work?
A voltage difference across a cathode and anode accelerates electrons that are directed at tungsten, which then gives off the x-ray
What's the relationship between a CAT scan and x-ray
A CAT scan is an x-ray that rotates to provide a 3D image.
What magnetic property does contrast media have?
It's paramagnetic
What is the most common contrast medium for vasculature? The GI system?
Iodine for vasculature and barium for the GI system
What are the key elements of the auditory system?
Cochlea, vestibular-cochlearly nerve, cochlear nuclei, coliculi, and the geniculate.