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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tablewine where grapes can be soarced from anywhere in the EU
deutscher tafelwein
Table wime where grapes must come from germany
Germany's half hearted vin d' pays. Not very popular and must be trocken or halbtrocken
trocken means?
halbtrocken means
semi dry
qualitatswein bestimmter anbaugebiete
quality wine soarced from 1 of 13 designated wine regions
Qualitatswein mit pradikat
top quality wines with special attributes
further classified by must weight at harvest
name the 6 must weight classifications of QmP
kabinett, spatlese, auslese, beerenauslese, trockenbeerenauslese, eiswein
what is an anbaugebiete
Any one of the 13 quality wine regions
what is a bereich
large area within a anbaugebiete
similar to a county
What is a gemeinde
commune or village
what is a grosslage
collection of vinyard sites
what is an einzellage
an indicidual vinyard
what is considered the best vinyard in the mosel
named after the archbishop of trier in 14th century who was curred of of a terminal illness from the wine
berkastler doctor
what does the term classic mean
commercial quality dry wines from a single variety
what does the term selection mean
top quality dry wines from a single variety
what does the AP# signify?
gaurantee of authenticity
what does erzaugerabfullung mean?
producer or estate bottled
what does gutsabfullung mean?
estate bottled
verbander deutscher pradikatsweinguter
associates with quality minded producers, symbol on foil, strict regulations, and adhere to vinyard classifications
what climate is Germany?
cold continental
what is the major grape of Mosel-Saar-ruwer and what soil type?
Riesling and soil is slate
generally sold in tall green bottles
name the 4 areas of the Rhine
rheingau rheinhessen pfaltz and nahe
usually bottles in brown bottles
what 2 grapes are major in rheinhessen
silvaner and muller-thurgau
what is spatburgunder
Pinot noir
One of the most northerly vineyards in Europe. Very small, red wine producing region – only 525 ha under vine. Spätburgunder accounts for 57% of plantings. Portugieser 14% and Riesling 8%. Most of the growers own less than ½ ha plots. Most of the wine is vinified and sold by co-ops. Rarely exported.
A small and often overlooked area. Vineyard area has been steadily shrinking since the 1960’s. Approximately 550 ha under vine. Mostly crisp whites made from Riesling. Some can be very good and very age-worthy. Source of grapes for many Sekt houses.
11,250 ha under vine. Main river is the Mosel. The Saar and Ruwer are significant tributaries. Moderate rainfall and rapid warming of the steeper slopes. Slate has been used as a building material in the region for hundreds of years. The presence of slate in vineyards is key to the success of the best sites (as it traps heat).
Mosel: The best vineyards are on the south-facing slopes. The Mosel has, side-by-side, the best and worst aspects of German wine. The best wines are made from Riesling grown on the mineral-rich slate soils. The worst wines are made from other varieties which still represent 40% of the valley’s output. Müller-Thurgau is grown on the sandy soils of the valley floor. Some Elbling grown in the upper Mosel. Best villages: Scharzhofberg Piesport, Brauneberg, Bernkastel, Graach, Wehlen, Zeltingen, Erden.
Bernkasteler Doctor Vineyard: Considered by many to be the greatest vineyard in the Mosel. Restorative powers of the wine from this vineyard were proclaimed by the archbishop of Trier in the 14th century. Some legal battles over the area of the vineyard. 8 acres of steep south-facing vineyards above the town of Bernkastel.
Saar: Cold area. Getting grapes ripe is a constant battle. In great years the best vineyards produce astonishingly good wines. Key villages and their vineyards: Wiltingen: Sharzhofberg and Braune Kupp. Ockfen: Bockstein. Ayl: Kupp. Kanzem: Altenberg.
Ruwer: Little more than a stream. Very small area under vine. Total adds up to about half of one Cote d’Or commune. The village of Mertesdorf has the famous vineyard of Aptsberg. The village of Eitelsbach has Karthauserhofberg. Famous vineyard: Bockstein.
Flows north into the Rhein at Bingen. Variety of soils. Sandy loam in the north- Müller-Thurgau and Silvaner. Best vineyards are upstream. Good Riesling grown on sandstone and quartz soils in the south.
The Rhein flows west so the north bank is south facing. Provides ideal conditions for ripening. Riesling represents 80% of plantings. Predominantly slate soils. History of dry wine production. Battles with the Mosel for the best Riesling in Germany. Famous villages: Rudesheim, Winkel, Oestrich, Erbach, and Eltville. Famous vineyards: Marcobrunn.
• Vineyard Classification of 2000: Erstes Gewächs (‘First Growths’): Must be hand-picked, vines must be min. 15 years old, max yield of 50 hl/ha, wines are assessed by a rigorous tasting panel. Presently represents only 1% of production.
• Association of Charta Estates: Launched in 1983. 30 Rheingau producers making dry to off-dry Rieslings according to much stricter rules: higher must weights, etc. Goal is to produce more concentrated, balanced wines to go with food. Max yield 50 hl/ha. 100% estate-grown Riesling. Subjected to 3 blind tastings. Required 18 months bottle aging before release. New classified vineyard (Einzellage) wines as Erstes Gewächs (‘First Growths’), from the original Einzellage boundaries. By the late 1990s, the Charta and VDP joined forces, because there was no point in duplicating their efforts.
• Research Station at Geisenheim: Originally set up by the king of Prussia in 1872 to improve fruit growing. Professor Müller-Thurgau developed the grape of the same name in 1882. The foremost institute for winemaking and viticulture studies in Germany.
Largest area in Germany. Fairly sandy soils giving soft, easy drinking wines. Müller-Thurgau and Silvaner are extensively planted. Some dry Silvaners can be good. Most of the bland stuff ends up as Liebfraumilch. Riesling only represents about 10% of vineyard plantings but is grown in the finest vineyards in the villages of Nierstein and Oppenheim. Traditionally known for high quality wines, but expansion of the area into flatter, higher-yielding areas has changed that perception. Famous vineyards: Olberg
Pfalz (‘P’-faultz)
Traditionally known as the Palatinate or Rheinpfalz. Area known for quantity but some very high quality wines are produced. Soils are mainly sandstone with some limestone. Some protection from the Haardt Mountains, the German extension of the Vosges Mountains. Some of Germany’s best red wines. Whites tend to be rounder and more full-flavored. Best wines come from the villages of Wachenheim, Forst, Deidesheim, and Ruppertsberg.
Hessische Bergstrasse (Bāirgk Schtrăssăh
This is the smallest region, with only 456ha under vine. Mostly Riesling, mostly consumed locally
Franken (Frănken)
Whites from Müller-Thurgau and Silvaner grown in the valley of the Main River. Traditionally dry wines bottled in “bocksbeutel
Württemberg (Make ‘u’ with mouth, but say ‘ē’)
Light reds made from Trollinger and Müllerrebe. Whites from Riesling and Müller-Thurgau.
German Crossings why?
Reasons for the vigorous development of crosses in the first half of the 1900’s?
Difficult climate – hardier grapes needed
Earlier ripening varieties preferred
Abilities of the new crosses to achieve higher must weights
Some approximated the smell and taste attributes of Riesling
…but most of the crossing that were developed didn’t produce very interesting or characterful wines
Some exceptions…..
Kerner, Ehrenfelser, Rieslaner and Scheurebe
The noble grape of Germany
Most widely planted variety
Planted in the most prestigious sites on the Mosel and Rhein rivers
Late budding
Late ripening compared to other German varieties
Winter-hardy vine
Susceptible to botrytis
Needs careful site selection to achieve full ripeness – but the brilliance of the Riesling grape is that it can still produce wines of great finesse precisely when not fully ripe
Long, slow ripening is the key to the great flavor development of the best examples
Clean fresh, lemony, peachy and floral when young
Develops petrol or kerosene aromas and flavours with age
This distinctive character comes from the high levels of monoterpenes
Tremendous capacity for ageing and cellar metamorphosis
Cross developed in the 1880’s
Second most planted variety
Recent DNA fingerprinting suggests it is a cross between Riesling and Chasselas de Courtillier
NEWS FLASH: the Chasselas was mislabelled in the testing and the father may be Madeleine Royal instead!!!!
Reliable, early ripening and capable of very high yield without loss of quality….
Dubious quality to start with ….
Forms the backbone of most Liebfraumilch
A grape of some economic importance
Silvaner (Sylvaner in France)
Disease resistant, productive variety
Slowing losing viticultural acreage
Only now found in sites where it has always been important
Tends to be low in acidity and fairly neutral in taste if yields are too high
Cropping at considerably less than 100 hl/ha may be the ticket
Can be delicious
Best examples have typically come from the Franken
An ancient variety cultivated in Mosel since Roman times
Prolific variety that can attain yields of up to 200 hl/ha
Most plantings are in the upper areas of the Mosel in chalk dominated soils where Riesling often has trouble ripening
Most of it is used for Sekt production
Remember PX?????
Great success story of German vine breeding
Reliable crossing of Trollinger and Riesling
Late-budding, early ripening
Produces similar wines to Riesling
Grown mostly in Rheinhessen and used in Liebfraumilch
Another one of the better Riesling/ Silvaner crosses
Ripens more easily than Riesling and is more productive
Not quite as versatile as Kerner as far as site selection goes
Mostly planted in the Rheinhessen and the Pfalz
Pronounced shoy-raber
Highly regarded Silvaner/Riesling cross
Needs to achieve full maturity to be interesting
Does particularly well in the Pfalz
Another Riesling/Silvaner cross
Not very widely planted but can produce interesting wines
Mostly planted in Franken
German name for Pinot Gris
Also know as Grauburgunder
Best in warmer vineyard zones
Planted in many areas although more than half the total plantings are in Baden
Fair bit planted in the Rheinhessen and Pfalz
A crossing of Silvaner x Riesling x Muller-Thurgau
Early ripening variety yielding fruity wines with a light Muscat tone
"It tastes like water, but it grows on you.“

The Chasselas of Switzerland….
(Pinot Noir):
Introduced by the Burgundian monks when they established cloisters here in the Middle ages
Best in Pfalz and Baden
Nearly 55% of total plantings are in Baden
Plantings have been steadily increasing
It is the most important variety in the Ahr
Also planted in the Rheingau, Pfalz, Rheinhessen and Württemberg
Portugieser (Blauer Portugieser
Mostly planted in the Pfalz where it is often made into a special pink wine known as Weissherbst
The Schiava of Italy
Also known as Vernatsch
Really only grown in Wurttemberg
A cross of Helfensteiner and Heroldrebe
Well-regarded red fleshed variety
Prized for its colour, tannin and appealing aromas
Best examples are from the Pfalz
Germany’s Beaujolais!
Müllerebe or Pinot Meunier
Blaufrankisch of Austria
A cane training system like Double Guyot popular in Switzerland and the flatter parts of Germany and Alsace
The bent canes expose many fruit-bearing shoots and help to boost yields
Better sap distribution
Generally used for economy, not quality
How about wood? in germany
Barrique Wine

Can only be labelled as Deutscher Tafelwein, because oak influence is not considered traditional or typical
Category for red and white Trocken wines fermented and/or aged in new oak casks

Schlossgut Diel and Franz Keller-Schwarzer Adler are worth seeking out
Decoding the A.P. Number
2  593  049  14  99
 2: The testing center, where the wine was approved 
593: The village in which the producer is located
 049: The code number for the producer
   14: The producer's application number   
99: The year in which the producer filed the application
Amtliche Prufungnummer means
Grosses Gewächs means
Great Growth wine
“always super-premium, dry wines produced according to stringent, high standards from grapes grown in top sites (Erste Lage), handcrafted by Germany’s finest wine-growers, and…………
outfitted with a distinctive package”
…a bit like Burgundy and Alsace Grand Cru
Klassifizierte Langenwein means
Wines from a classified site
Bear the special VDP capsule and a single-site vineyard appellation
Guaranteed to be remarkable, terrior- driven wines
The list of sites that qualify for these wines has been fine-tuned over many years
House wines that are simply labelled with a proprietary name and/or broad appellation of origin such as the name of a village or region
The estates name supposedly guarantees the wines quality
Prädikat Grades
67 - 85 degrees Oe
Grapes picked at normal harvest time but with higher minimum must weights than for QbA
Usually riper due to more favourable sites
Most delicate of German quality wines
Pronounced: shpatelayser
76 – 95 Degrees Oe
Literally late harvest … but in reality the grapes are just normally ripe
Grapes should be picked at least one week later than grapes from the preliminary Kabinett harvest
In good vintages will have extra ripeness and extra flavour
Pronounced: owslayser
83 – 105 Degrees Oe
From selected extra ripe bunches of grapes
Some of the grapes may have been affected by edelfäule
Beerenauslese (BA)
110 – 1 Pronounced: beerenowslayser
28 Degrees Oe
‘Beeren’ means berries in German
Made from individually selected extra ripe grapes that have usually been affected by edelfäule
Very high sugar content
Taste like honey-soaked raisins
Pronounced: icevine
110 – 128 Degrees Oe
Temperatures of -8 Celsius (18F) are required
Grapes are harvested frozen and pressed immediately
Frozen water crystals are left in the press
Grapes must be of Beerenauslese ripeness and quality
Very sweet and concentrated
Trockenbeerenauslese (TBA)
Pronounced: trockenbeerenowslayser
150 – 154 Degrees Oe
Only produced in the greatest vintages
Individual selection of fully botrytis-affected grapes
Ripest, rarest and most expensive
Geographical Descriptions 5 of em
Each Anbaugebiet is further sub-divided to form a geographical hierarchy e.g.
Anbaugebiet – Mosel-Saar-Ruwer
Bereich – Bereich Bernkastel
Gemeind (community name)– Bernkastel
Grosslage – Bernkastler Badstube
Einzellage – Bernkastler Doctor
Quality Wine Regions the 13 Anbaugebiete
Hessische Bergstrasse
Ausbruch and Strohwein in austria
Ausbruch is a classification between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese
Strohwein is straw wine
Wines in general are drier and have more body and alcohol
Austria is split into 4 Weinbauregions
Vienna – Wien
Lower Austria – Niederosterreich
Vineyards lie in the suburbs of Vienna. Most of the production is from Grüner Veltliner and is sold as young wine by the pitcher as Wiener Heurigen, which is drunk in the local wine bars (called Heurigen, or Buschenschanken). The best wines are made from Chardonnay and Riesling, but many of the wines are blended. There are no inner districts, but there are several wine villages within the city limits, of which the most famous is Grinzing.
Austria’s warmest and easternmost region, bordering Hungary. The Mittelburgenland and Südburgenland are Austria’s most important red wine areas. Burgenland consistently provides overripe grapes. Dominant feature is the large, very shallow Lake Neusiedlersee, which provides autumn mists – ideal for sweet wine production. Top quality sweet wines. Home to Alois Kracher, one of the country’s best sweet wine producers. Some interesting dry whites and reds are also being produced.
• Mittelburgenland: Originally part of the old Rust-Neusiedlersee, but it is physically separated form the Neusiedlersee by the Sopron wine area of Hungary. The wines here are more passerillage than botrytized in character. This is a red wine district, with 75% of production from varieties such as Blaufränkisch and Zweigelt. The wines from this region do not have the body, tannin, and acidity balance that is associated with even the most modest red wines. All Mittelburgenland DAC wines must be made with the Blaufränkisch grape. Mittelburgenland DAC wines can be produced in three styles: Classic, Brand or Reserve. For each style, different oak regimes, barrel sizes, and alcohol levels are specified.
• Neusiedlersee: These vineyards and those of Neusiedlersee-Hügelland are within the area of influence of Lake Neusiedlersee. Its microclimate produces more botrytized grapes than any other wine area in the world.
• Neusiedlersee-Hügelland: The western side of Lake Neusiedlersee produces a similar range of wines to those on the eastern side, although more red wine is produced here. This is home to the village of Rust, famous for production of Ausbruch wine.
• Südburgenland: The red wines, mainly Blaufränkisch, are generally uninspiring. Some really good Welschriesling is made.
Austria’s premier dry wine region. Largest region, largest production, largest exports. Represents 60% of Austria production. There are eight important subregions: Wienviertel, Donauland, Carnuntum, Thermenregion, Traisental, Kamptal, Kremstal, and Wachau. Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal produce some of the finest dry white wines in Austria. The best wines come from steep slopes. Some of the best expressions of dry Riesling and excellent Grüner Veltliner.
• Carnuntum: Part of Donauland-Carnuntum until 1994, this appellation consists of vineyards on the banks of the Danube and its hinterland. Although white grapes predominate, red wines have generally proved more successful.
o Village(s): Göttelsbrunn
• Donauland: ‘Land of the Danube’. Best for Grüner Veltliner.
o Village(s): Kirchberg, Klosterneuberg, Wagram
• Kamptal: North of Kremstal, this region produces some of Austria’s finest Riesling, and is home to some of the country’s most gifted, innovative, and expressive winemakers. Has south-facing, often loess-dominated vineyards protected by mountains from northern chill.
o Village(s): Langenlois, Strass, Zöbenstein (famous for its Heiligenstein vineyard)
• Kremstal: Part of the old Kamptal-Donauland region, this relatively small area north and south of a short stretch of the Danube was singled out due to the fame of Krems, which is renowned for its Grüner Veltliner. Some good Rieslings are also produced. Some international varieties also show promise.
o Village(s): Krems
• Thermenregion: Named after the hot springs, this is also, coincidentally, one of Austria’s warmest regions. Both white and reds are produced, with Blauer Portugieser and Neuberger dominating. Also St. Laurent, dry Riesling, and oaked Chardonnay.
o Village(s): Bad Vöslau, Gumpoldkirschen
• Traisental: Formerly the SW half of Donauland, achieving appellation independence in 1994.
o Village(s): Hertzogenburg
• Wachau: Lower Austria’s top-performing district. Produces just 3% of Austria’s output from only 3,700 acres along a 12-mile strip of vineyards overlooking the Danube. Makes many fine varietals, especially Grüner Veltliner and Riesling. Complex array of soils, steep aspects. The wines from here are concentrated because of the climate. The warm Pannonian climate reaches up the Danube Valley, but the vineyards are cooled at night by northern air from the woods above.
o Village(s): Durnstein, Loiben, Spitz
Vinea Wachau Group: Growers have their own system of designating wines – a codified local taste.
• Steinfeder: Wines up to 11% alc for early drinking (73º-83.5º Oe)
• Federspiel: Made from slightly riper grapes, from 11.5 to 12.5% alc (min 83.5º Oe)
• Smaragd: Seriously full-bodied but usually dry, 12.5+% alc (min 90º Oe), max 9 g/l R.S.
• Weinviertel: This large area (the largest region in Austria) combines the two former districts of Retz and Falkenstein (both extend north to the Czech border). Some reds, but mostly whites. Usually a source for good wines at a great value. The first DAC region (for Grüner Veltliner).
o Village(s): Falkenstein, Mailberg, Retz
Styria / Steiermark
A relative newcomer on the Austrian scene. Situated in the SE corner of Austria, this region has a high degree of rainfall interspersed with exceptional levels of sunlight and warmth. Principal variety is Welschriesling. Developing a reputation for Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay (aka Morillon). Well-known dry rosé called Schiller is made from Blauer Wildbacher. Three wine districts.
• Süd-Oststeiermark: Müller-Thurgau and Welschriesling are surprisingly successful, and can grow very good Gewürztraminer from the volcanic soils of Klöch.
• Südsteiermark: The very best wines here have Styria’s naturally acidity combined with delicate and pure fruit flavors, especially with Gewürztraminer, Chardonnay (aka Morillon), and Riesling.
• Weststeiermark: Specialties include Sauvignon Blanc (locally, and confusingly, known as Muskat-Silvaner) and Zweibelschilcher.
5 regions for switzerland
Sub-regions of La Cote, Lavaux and Chablais
Mostly white wines made from Chasselas
Some reds and roses from Gamay
Upper valley of the Rhone river
Main grape is Chasselas (Fendant)
Dole is a red wine made from a blend of Pinot Noir and Gamay – must be at least 85% PN and G
Ticino (Tichino)
Lies in the southern, Italian-speaking area
Best wines are reds from Merlot
Similar in style to northern Italian Merlot from Trentino
Large producer of whites from Chasselas and some Pinot Noir
Lake influence
Lies on the southern shore of Lake Constance
Similar wines to southern Germany