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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where are the most common infections in the elderly?
The most common infections in the elderly are of the GU, GI tracts, pulmonary system, skin and soft tissues.
Why are the elderly more susceptible to UTI's?
Elderly are at increased risk due to BPH, loss of estrogen, incontinence, indwelling or condom catheters.
UTI is defined as what?
UTI is defined as >100,000 colonies/ml.
What are the most common organisms of the UTI?
E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Staph.
What would you use to treat an uncomplicated UTI?
Cipro 250 mg bid
Macrobid 100 mg bid
Bactrim 160/800 mg
What are the most common viral infections in the elderly?
Most common are Influenza A and B, parainfluenza, coronavirus, and rhinovirus.
Which two virus have the highest morbidity in the elderly?
Influenza A and RSV
What are the most common organisms for pneumonia in the elderly?
Pneumococcus, H. influenza, S. aureus, Legionella, gram negatives and Chlamydia.
The most serious pneumonia infections are caused by what organisms?
S. pneumonia and Legionella
What is the treatment for pneumococcal pneumonia?
Penicillin G, Amoxicillin, Macrolides
What is the preferred treatment for H. flu pneumonia?
Cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime
What are the principle organisms of gastroenteritis?
Viral, C difficile, Campylobacter species, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella
If onset of symptoms of gastroenteritis is within 12 hours of ingestion of food or water, what organisms would you suspect?
Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, or S. aureus
What labs would you perform to diagnose gastroenteritis?
Stool culture, ova and parasites, sigmoid/colonoscopy.
Infectious gastroenteritis is treated with what?
Flagyl
What are some atypical signs and symptoms in CHD?
dyspnea, fatigue, weakness, dizziness or abdominal discomfort
What are some atypical signs and symptoms of HF?
altered sensorium, irritability, lethargy, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and GI disturbances
What would you do to diagnosis DVT?
duplex venous ultrasonography(Doppler)
What is gold standard for diagnosis of DVT?
Venography
How would you treat a DVT?
Bed rest with affected limb elevated above heart.
Unfractionated heparin should then be intravenously administered by bolus, followed by continuous infusion. Rate should be adjusted so that the aPTT is double baseline. Warfarin is then added for 2-3 days in conjunction with the heparin until PT/INR is 2.0-3.0.
How long do you treat for a DVT if the risk is temporary or idiopathic?
3-6 months
How long do you treat a patient with a DVT and a high risk of reoccurence?
indefinately
What are the signs and symptoms of a DVT?
Dyspnea, tachypnea, pleuritic chest pain, tachycardia, anxiety and hemoptysis