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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gerontology
multidiciplinary study for the PROCESSES of aging
Geriatrics
medical specialty, focuses on disease prevention and management
geriatric dentistry
part of an interdisciplinary team with other health professionals
chronological age vs. biological age
how many years have you lived
maximum life spac
max # od years a fiven species could expec to live if environmental hazards were eliminated.
life expectancy
probability estimate
T/F Life expectancy of males and females is INCREASING
True
T/F life expectancy is greater in white females vs. black females
both are expected to live longer than males in general
T/F By 2030 20% of the population will be 65 yoa +
True
Baby Boomer
person born 1946-1964
T/F Baby boomers tend to be less educated and have less expectations about maintaining their natural dentition
False
what age is the demarcation between middle and old aged?
65
young old
65-74
old-old
75-84
oldest-old
85+
how many people are 65+?
37.3 million
how many centenarians?
~70,000
what portion of the older population is the fastest growing segement?
the oldest-old
how many americans are 85+
~3.2 million
of oklahoma's 3.5 million people, how many are age 60+?
~18% (600,000)
what percentage of OK's population is 55-59?
6.1% (200,000)
what percentage of older adults have at least one chronic condition?
80%
what percentage of older adults have at least 2 chronic conditions
50%
what are the conditions for women out-living men?
places women are no longer required to perform extreme physical labor, have adequate sanitation and decreased maternal mortality rates
by how many years do women normally outlive men?
6 (85% of of women outlive their husbands)
Ratio of men per 100 women ages 55-64
92: 100
Ratio of men per 100 women at 85+
46:100
T/F men are less likely to remarry if widowed?
False
T/F aging men face few financial problems
true
t/f a greater # of men are married vs. women at 65
true (percentage-wise)
t/f a greater # of women are widowed at 65 vs. men
true
at any one time, how many 65+ are institutionalized?
5-6%
how many 65+ require daily assistance?
15%
how many 65+ are able to live independently?
80%
what is agism?
stereotyping about old age
t/f aging is a highly individual experience, a natural process influenced by genetics, nutrition, stress, exercise, and many older people are in good health
true
what is the chance that an american will be poor at some time in his or her life after 60?
4 in 10 (40%)
t/f dental concerns for the older population fall well behind chronic medical conditions
with only 20% of older Americans carrying dental insurance
what is the biggest life change?
Retirement
t/f social security benefits only replace 50% of income
FALSE
in 2005, what % of people 65-69 were still working?
33%
t/f As working older men have increased in the last 40 years, working older women have decreased.
False
how many women work full-time in every age group? what percentage of these women have pensions?
50 million
what percentage of geriatric women are living close to poverty?
41%
what percentage of women earn 45,000 or less/
9 out of 10 (90%)
t/f in the last 10 years, women aged 70-74 in the work force has quadrupled
false
what percentage of older americans pay for dental expenses out-of-pocket
75%
what is the number one factor determining whether a person goes to the dentist?
INSURANCE
t/f in 50% of Boomer households, both spouses work
False
what percentage of Boomer households made 70,000+ in 2001?
39%
what was the net worth of Boomer households in 2004?
$152,000
t/f the geriatric poverty rate has declined sharply in the past 50 years
from 35% in 1959 to ~10% in 2004.
what is the median income for geriatric men and women?
21,000 for men
when will social security funds be exhausted?
2042
what is the average yearly benefit for SS?
$11,000
what % of companies offer a pension plan?
20%
what is the strongest leg of the 3-legged stool?
SAVINGS
the 75th percentile has how many times more wealth than the 25th percentile?
10X
what % of older americans (60+) will not be able to afford a basic dental examination?
40%
what % of elderly have untxed dental caries?
1/3
t/f 80% of those considering retirement have the financial means to support the same standard of living as they had when they were working.
False, 40%
what is title XVII?
medicare benefits
What does Medicare part A provide?
Hospital insurance
what is Medicare part B?
supplemental medical insurance that must be payed
what is 'Medigap'?
part of part B coverage began in 1980
What is the age of cut off for dental benefits for Medicaid?
over the age of 21
phychological aging vs. social aging
changes that occur in the sensory and perceptual processes, mental fx, adaptive capacity and personality vs. a person's changing roles and relationships with family and friends.
what is a cohort study?
describes a group of people who were born at appox the same time and share many common experiences.
what is active aging?
the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance the quality of life as people age.
what are the top 5 leading causes of death in adults aged 65+ in the US?
1. Heart Disease 2. CA 3. cerebrovascular diseases 4. COPD 5. pneumonia and flu
what are the top 5 chronic conditions of 65+ in the US?
1. arthritis 2. HTN 3. heart disease 4. chronic sinusitis 4. diabetes
what is the prevalence of dementia in 65+?
~1% at age 60 and doubles every 5 years
what is the prevalence of alzheimers?
10% over the age of 65
what is the 2nd most common result from stroke?
vascular dementia
falls: what is the percentage of accidental falls in older adults/yr?
33%
what is the ratio of falls that result in fracture?
1: 20
what percentage of adults 65+ are edentulous?
30-40%
what percentage of 65+ have LOA?
95%
t/f in healthy older adults, there are no age-related decreases in salivary flow
true
2 meds to increase exocrine excretions & stimulate salivary glands
cevemeline and pilocarpine
what is the main reason for the loss of some taste sensation in older adults?
loss of sense of smell
sudden loss of taste/smell may be due to what?
brain tumor
what % of older adults complian of swallowing/esophogeal problems? what can be done/
33%
mid to late dementia, one might want to have who in the room with the pt?
a familiar person
aphasia
inability to understand or communicate spoken or written word
dysphagia
inability to swallow
when is max fx regained in a stroke pt?
usually by 6 months after the incident
Right-side CVA
contralateral motor deficit
Left-side CVA
contralateral motor deficit
what is most paramount is treating a stroke pt?
protection of the airway
what changes occur in the tooth structure with age?
thickness of enamel declines, it becomes less hydrated, superficial increases in F-
90% of oral CAs are what?
squamous cell carcinomas
t/f acute, throbbing pain is a common symptom in the older adult
false
what is the most prevalent cause of tooth loss in old age>
periodontal disease (and caries)
t/f changes in the periodontium because of aging alone are sufficient to cause tooth loss
false
Root caries: what is a requirement for their development?
recession of gingiva
root caries are often associated with conditions that produce _______?
xerostomia
what accounts for the majority of lesions found in older adults?
recurrent caries
what is the limit of 2% lido with 1:100,000 epi/appt with an older adult?
2 carpules
do you use retraction cord with epi? why or why not?
NO...overdose of epi in older pt.
etiology of angular cheiltis? other contributing factors?
c. albicans
red, denuded, shiny tongues is indicative of what condition?
xerostomia
elders are admitted to the hospital three times the rate of younger people as a consequence of ADR? T/F
True
what % of deaths due to ADR are in the population of people 60+?
51%
what is the estimated # of deaths annually due to ADRs in older pop.?
50-75K
what is the 2nd leading cause of accidental death in the US?
poisioning due to Rx drugs
what is the estimated cost of inappropriate meds and their consequences in older people?
200 Billion/yr
what % of Rx drugs are taken by those of the age of 65?
30%
what % of OTC drugs are taken by 65+?
40-50%
t/f 50% of older people take at least one medication/day?
false
what % of older people are taking inappropriate meds (Beer's List)?
25%
what % of meds are considered to be unneccessary/
30%
increased morbidity and mortality associated with drug-drug interactions in the elderly is due to what?
decreased physiological reserve
what % of falls/accidents are due to unneccessary sedative use by the elderly?
40%
t/f majority of people 50+ lose 1% of renal fx/decade
false 10%/decade
pharmacokinetics vs. pharmocodynamics
kinetics=what the body does to the drug (breakdown, half-life, etc)
with NSAIDs, what should one prescribe to prevent GI bleeding?
PPI proton pump inhibitor
older pop usually has an greater/lessor response to drug dosage?
greater
t/f 3 of the top 10 selling herbal supplements interact with warfarin
false 7 out of the 10
M.A.S.T.E.R.
Minimize # of drugs
ADL vs. IADL
activities of daily living: self-care, feeding, dressing, bathing, etc
what is double social jeopardy?
old and female
what is triple social jeopardy?
old, female, and minority
at what age does menopause usually occur? what physiological ramifications does it have?
50
t/f cardiac fibers undergo mitosis
false
which heart valves usually thicken with age?
mitral and aortic
what is the most common cardiovascular pathology of the elderly?
arteriosclerosis= elevated BP
primary vs. secondary osteoporosis
1': postmenopausal, senile, idiopathic
what is the etiology of osteoporosis?
estrogen deficiency, decreased osteoblastic activity, decreased mobility, hormonal factors, mineral deficiencies, smoking, etc.
what is osteoarthritis?
degeneration of cartilage in joints
what respiratory changes are common in older adults?
decreased expansion and respiratory volume due to decreased elasticity of tissue
over the age of 60, how much does the brain's cortical tissue decrease in size?
5-10%
what changes of the eye are common in older adults?
decreased adaptation of the pupil to the light
what ramification does progressive loss of kidney fx have?
high levels of drugs in blood.