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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
broad, flat area inundated during high tides and exposed during low tides
mud flat
remnant column of rock in the ocean near the coast
sea stack
tides that form at 90 degrees to each other.
neap tides
tides that form when the sun and moon are aligned
spring tides
water that is piled up returns to the sea
rip current
the periodic swell of lake water
steeply sloped, cone shaped hill that occurs in tropical karst areas.
Tower karst
A gentle sloping tower karst
cockpit karst
karst with large amounts of water, vegetation, and high temperatures
trapical karst
Darwin's model for the formation of an atoll (1st model)
fringing reef forms around an island, island sinks and barrier reefs extend to the surface
2nd model for atoll formation
Glacial Control. flat coral left after sea-level drop; rain falls leaving depression in flat surface, sea level rises.
lakes formed by the changes in evaporation rates and precipitation brought about by worldwide temp drops.
Pluvial Lakes
latitudes where most of the EArth's deserts form due to descending of heated air.
horse latitudes
Methods of wind transport
suspension, slatation, and surface creep
wind moves weathered material
faces of rock pitting
low ridges of sand with wavelengths from 0.5-2.5m
very small amounts of sand with the spires pointing downward
barchan dunes
dunes that form in areas of prevailant winds spires pointing upward
parabolic dunes
elongate dunes forming perpendicular to the wind
transverse dunes
dunes forming parallel tot he wind direction
longitudinal dunes
last ice age
Wisconsin glaciation (20ka)
forming of ice lenses underneat the ground, favoring ground waters
ice segregation
uplift associated with freezing groundwaters
frost heave
general upward movement associated with frost heave.
ice propogates downward pulling stones from the soil
ice pull
boulder freezes faster from the bottom pushing the boulder up
ice push
cylindrical needles of ice can push particles upward
needle ice
freezing and thawing can often change the grain size distribution by sorting
frost sorting
creep associate with frost heave
frost creep
flowing of saturated soil
solifluction associated with frozen ground
large lobate tongue shaped masses of rock debris frozen with interstituent ice
rock glaciers
piles of boulders on the side of a mountain formed by frost wedging
flat areas associated with glaciation from 3-13 degrees
occuring in a glacial setting, flat areas greater than 13 degrees
block slopes
streams confined by valley walls
the top melting layer of permafrost
active layer
a lens of unfrozen ground between active permafost layer and permafrost layer
depth of permafrost at which temp is constant
zero annual amplitude line
cracks that fill with ice, more prevalent in fine-grained sediment
multiple ice wedges come together forming polygons
ice-wedge polygons
small dome-shaped hill of mount that is cored with ice
composed of interwoven laters of ice and peat
the collapsed landforms associated with the thawing of ground ice
fields of conical mounts
distinct symmetrical geometric shapes in paraglacial zones
pattern ground
pediment with no residual knob left only a flat gently sloping surface
pediment pass
landform formed as a stream exits an area of high relief and enters a broad flat plain
alluvial fan
flat depositional surface wehere many indicidual alluvial fans meet
fry lake bed
triangulat shaped protuberance in the shoreline which forms when a river meets a large body of water
flat erosional feature is the end product of the cycle of erosion
meandering river goes back to the process of meandering back and forth flattening out an area
lateral planation
formed by something perturbing the system resulting in incision leaving areas to the side outside the areas of erosion
fluvial terraces
each terrace is an erosional surface, not a depositional surface
cut in bedrock terrace
constructed by deposition, river incises into new level and then fills
fill terrace
river meanders back and forth creating deposition then cuts down through it and while dutting fills it back up
cut and fill terrace
similar to a pediment, relics of former flood plain, now dissected
cyclic erosional surface
surface formed by selective stripping of the low resistance surgace from high reisitance rocks leaving behind a low relief plane
stripped structural surface
due to uplift around a meander, the meander is stuck in its course
entrenched meander
ease at which fluids travel through rock
ratio of the colume of water that is drained by gravity from saturated sediments to the total volume of the material
specific yield
ratio of volume of water retained to the total volume
specific retention
volume of water at a given viscosity that will move in a porous medium in a unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area measured at right angles to the plane
hydraulic conductivity
Darcy's Law
P=hydraulic conductivity (m/s)
I=Hydraulic gradient (no units)
A=cross sectional area (m^2)
upper surface of the zone of saturation
water table
subsurface area in which all porosity is filled with water
zone of saturation
geologic unit that can store and transmit economic quantities of water
extends continuously from a land surgace downward through a material with high permeability
unconfined aquifer
bound both above and below with impermeable or nearly impermeable layers
confined aquifer
aquifer under enough pressure that, if allowed to connect to surface, water would flow freely to surface
artesian aquifer
groundwater becomes heated to high temps due to a heat source in the subsurface
thermal spring
landscape formed from dissolution
compound sinkhole
large closed depression with flat alluvial fill
dissolution depression intersecting the water table
karst lake
center of a sinkhole gets clogged with clay so no water can escape
sinkhole pond
dissolving of limestone walls along fissures or bedding planes that are structurally controlled
solution chmney
cercular cylinders with vertical walls that cut across fissures and bedding planes
vertical shafts
river flows into karst features under ground
disappearing stream
valley where large percent of drainage is underground
karst valley
remnant valley with all present drainage underground
dry valleys
fluvial valley that bruptly ends at a sinkhole
pocket valleys
valley flows away from a sinkhole
blind valley
area with an abundance of estuaries
coast of submergence
areas that are submerged during high tide
tidal flat
predominantly found in temperatures between 77 and 86 degrees and live less that 60 m of water
coral reefs
Darwins Atoll formation
1)seamount above surface
2)fringing reef forms around it
3)seamount sinks under weight and reef continues to grow
4)central island erodes or sinks enough to be completely submerged
big integrated root system of trees captures sediment and forms land
masses of ice or granular snow formed by compaction or recrystallixation of snow lying largely or wholly on land and showing eveidence of past or present movement
the state between snow and ice
under great pressure, ice can melt and still have a temp above freezing
pressure melting
melting and refreezing due to changes in pressure
glacier slides over it's bed
basal sliding
minor movement taken place by rotating of crystal grains within a glacier
intergranular shifting
crystals of ice are sheared (parallel to movement)
intragranular shifting
ice melts the refreezes downslope
decrease velocity and ice thickens
compressive flow
velocity increases and ice thins
extending flow
crevasse forming perpendicular to the flow direction
transverse crevasse
crevasse forming along sides of the calley pointing at an angle up-flow
crevasses forming parallel to the flow
longitudinal crevasses
crevasses causing ice preading in a radial pattern
radiant crevasses
alternations of light and dark on the surface
ogives (ridges and swells)
ridges form during summer
swells form during winter
glacier forming near pressure melting point
temperate glacier
glacier forming well below pressure melting point
polar glacier
glacier forming between the polar and temperate glaciers
subpolar glacier
glacier confined by walls everywhere
alpine glacier
smaller size alpine glacier
glacier much larger than a cirque glacier
valley glacier
glacier that drains ice from an ice cap or ice sheet to a lower elevation
outlet glacier
glacier connected to the ocean
tidewater glacier
glacier that discharges broad, radiating, flowing lobes
piedmont glacier
ice formation not confined by topography
ice sheet/cap
sheet= >50,000 km^2
cap = <50,000 km^2
ice is added to a glacier
ice is lost from a glacier
boundary between zone of accumulation and zone of ablation
equilibrium line
abrupt advance in glacial advancement rates
glacial surge
rock debris is picked up by a glacier and is dragger and scraped across the bed causing erosion
melt-water freezes, as glacier moves it pulls rocks loose
curved depressions formed by the removing of rock flakes by plucking
chatter marks
sediment directly deposited by glaciers
sediment deposited from melt-water from glaciers
rocks acarried by glaciers not from original bedrock
erratic boulder
couplets of sediment deposited annually
silt-sized quarts formed as glacer moves across landscape
glacial flour
wind-blown silt of glacial origin
semi-circular hollow set in a mountain slope characterized by a steep headwall
shallow depression formed by nivation of the permanant snow banks
nivation hollow
freeze and thaw and mass wasting
a narrow thin ridge between two cirques
spire between three or more cirques
glacial horn
horn sticking out through and ice sheet or cap
callet formed by a glacier rather than a river
glacial trough
step-like longitudinal profile of a glacial valley resembling a giant staircase
cyclopean stairs
chain of small lakes connected by streams within a glacial valley
paternoster lakes
a glacial trough that has been flooded by the arm of a sea
glacial valley that fills completely with a lake
finger lakes
depositional ridge built by material transported by glaciers
moraine forming where a glacier ends
end moraine
moraine formed by the advancement of a glacier
push moraine
moraine formed by the retreat of a glacier
dead-end moraine
multiple end moraines formed as a glacier retreats
recessional moraine
moraine formed on teh side of a glacier
lateral moraine
moraine formed by the accumulation of debris that form as two tributary glaciers come togher and later moraines become caught up between two tributary glaciers
medial moraine
moraine formed by two lobes of glaciers come together
interlobate moraine
moraine formed by till covered areas of low relief blacken ridges
ground moraine
linear ridges or hilss composed of till. streamlined forms with elongate axes oriented parallel to movement
once streams that formed on top of the glacier, when glacier melts, a glacial ridge is formed
depression within a glacier fills with sediment. when glacier melts you are left with a deposit
depressions often filled with water formed by the melting of buried ice
deposit of sediment associated with lake between glacier and valley wall
kame terrace
deposits formed in fornt of the glacier from meltwater streams
outwash plane
broad celss of atmospheric circulation taht control climate
hadley cells
terminal velocity
when air resistance = acc due to gravity
V = (4PpgDp/3PCd)
Pp = density of particle
Dp = diameter of particle
Cd = drag coefficient
(sphere = .7, square = 2)
P = atmospheric density
g = acc of gravity
elongate erosional ridges parallel to the wind
long longitudinal dune
seif dune
3 or more sharp ridges taht extend radially froma point
star dune