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83 Cards in this Set

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In situ decomposition of rocks and minerals
Weathering
Transport of weathered material
Erosion
most important factor that determines type of weathering
Climate
Two main types of weathering
Physical and Chemical
disintegration of rock without chemical changes
Physical weathering
chemical changes to the composition of a rock
Chemical weathering
8 types of physical weathering
Unloading, Freezing and Thawing, Hydrofracture, Crystal Growth, Thermal expansion and contraction, Wetting and Drying, Organic Activity, Gravitational impact
Under forty have caught the wind of gas
disintegration of rock from changes in volume associated with pressure changes as the rock moves to the surface
unloading
Formed from unloading
Sheeting joints and exfoliation domes
large mound of granite
exfoliation dome
water seeping into rock and freezing expands 93%
Freezing and Thawing
formed by freeze, thaw and rock falls
Talus
Water pushed through rock by freezing water near the surface.
Hydrofracturing
block fields/ broken up boulders and cobbles
Felsenmeres
water percolating into rock and material, when it evaporates, crystals form
Crystal Growth
repeated heating and cooling
thermal expansion and contraction
WEtting and drying, shale disintegrates
pedestal rocks
mud stick to rock edge, after drying it pulls off rock grain
colloidal plucking
importance for chemical weathering
surface area and water
disruption of mineral in water into consistent ions and molecules
dissolution
largest cave in gypsum
alabaster caverns, ok
mineral loses electron to oxygen
oxidation
mineral gains electron
reduction
substituting one element for another without changing mineral structure
ion exchange
least mobile to most mobile elements
Ca, NA, Mg, K, Si, T, Fe, Al
chemical addition of H+ and OH- ions into structure of mineral to create a new mineral
hydrolysis
organic rings pluck off metal ions
chelation
mineral containing K, Na, Ca, Mg are changed to some sort of CaCO3 by cation of carbonic acids
Carbonization
addition of water into mineral structure to form a new mineral
hydration
formed from hydration
anhydrite
6 types of chemical weathering
dissolution, oxydation/reduction, ion exchange, hydrolysis, carbonization, hydration
did ogner investigate his cats hiney?
9 controls of weathering
availability of water, temp, pressure, circulation of water, parent material, vegetation, topography, aspect, time
Always take constant pissing vacuums at table
5 dependents of weathering rates
parent material, climate, vegetation, topography, time
pat can vacation to tahiti
product of granular disintegration
grus
weathering of angular edges into rounded edges.
spheroidal weathering
bold, isolated outcrop that rises drastically from the ground and can be meters high
tors
caused by hydrolisis, honeycomb structure on side of cliffs
cavernous weathering
large scale tors
inselburg
broken up pieces of rock
regolith
ancient soil
paleosol
once stress is released it is turned back to original shape
elastic
once stress is released, it remains deformed
plastic
behaves like a fluid
viscous
point which a material no longer behaves elastically
elastic limit
amount of force required to cause failure
strength
breaking in direction to force
shear strenth
breaking on perpendicular plane
tensile strenght
collapsing in on itself
compressive strength
mechanical resistance to relative motion of adjacent masses
friction
slow and steady continuous plastic deformation
crepe
resistance to movement of 2 masses separated by a well defined plane
sliding friction
friction between internal grains
internal friction
shear strength not associated with inner particle strength
cohesion
porosity filled with water exerts pressure
fluid pressure
water dissolves minerals and transports them
siddolution
movement of material on the top of water
floatation
velocity keeping objects from settling
suspension
types of streams
straight, anastomosing, braided, meandering
types of streams
straight, anastomosing, braided, meandering
river flows with the slope of the land
consequent streams
have no preferred direction
insequent streams
river flows with the slope of the land
consequent streams
selective headward erosion following courses along weakness
subsequent streams
have no preferred direction
insequent streams
selective headward erosion following courses along weakness
subsequent streams
originally consequent stream, but has been modified to flow opposite direction
obsequent streams
originally consequent stream, but has been modified to flow opposite direction
obsequent streams
obsequent stream flowing at original direction but at a lower level
resequent
obsequent stream flowing at original direction but at a lower level
resequent
types of drainage patterns
dendritic, trellis, rectangular, radial, centripetal
types of drainage patterns
dendritic, trellis, rectangular, radial, centripetal
a leading edge of incision observed as a waterfall
knickpoint
a leading edge of incision observed as a waterfall
knickpoint
drainage divide shifts so that one river's drainage captures another
abstraction
drainage divide shifts so that one river's drainage captures another
abstraction
tributary captures the original, trunk stream
autocapture
old valley that is left high and dry due to stream capture
wind-gap
tributary captures the original, trunk stream
autocapture
one meandering stream meanders into another
intercision
old valley that is left high and dry due to stream capture
wind-gap
gently sloping, concave upward graded surface of erosion that cuts across rocks of varying resistance mantled with a thing veneer of alluvium
pediment
one meandering stream meanders into another
intercision
gently sloping, concave upward graded surface of erosion that cuts across rocks of varying resistance mantled with a thing veneer of alluvium
pediment