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137 Cards in this Set

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In situ decomposition of rocks and minerals
Weathering
transport of weathered material
Erosion
most important factor that determines type of weathering
climate
C
disintegration of rock without chemical changes
physical/mechanical weathering
chemical/mineralogical composition of rock altered
chemical weathering
disintergration of rock due to changes in volume associated with pressure changes as the rock moves to the surface
unloading
large mound of granite shaped like an onion associated with unloading
exfoliation dome
water seeps into rock and freezes, form of physical weathering, forms talus
freeze/thaw
water pushed through rock by freezing water near the surface, produces felsenmeers
hydrofracturing
produced by hydrofracturing, large fields of broken up boilders and cobbles
felsenmeers
salt water percolates into rock cracks, when water evaporates, salt crystals form breaking the material
crystal growth
repeated heating and cooling of rocks causing rock to break apart
thermal expansion/contraction
repeated wetting and drying of shales causes rocks to break apart
wetting and drying
mud cracks
dessication cracks
mud sticks to rock edge, after drying, it shrinks and pulls grain off
colloidal plucking
trees, people, etc introduce weathering
organic
rocks falling on other rocks
gravitational impact
two important things in chemical weathering
1. Surface area
2. Water
Why is water important in chemical weathering?
Exposes fresh surfaces.
Medium for elemental exchange.
Takes part in a chemical reaction.
Types of chemical weathering:
Dissolution
Oxidation/Reduction
Ion Exchange
Hydrolysis
Carbonization
Hydration
disruption of mineral in water into ions
dissolution
mineral loses electron to oxygen
oxidation
mineral gains an e-, occurs mostly below water table
reduction
substitute one element for another element in a mineral without changing mineral structure
ion exchange
way of expressing mobility
Ion exchange

IP=charge/radius
chemical addition of H+ and OH- ions into a structure to create a new mineral
hydrolysis
carbonization
minerals containing K, Na, Ca, Mg interact with cation from carbonic acids to form some sort of CaCO3
addition of water into mineral structure to form a new mineral
hydration
most important control on weathering
climate
9 Controls on Weathering
1. Availability of water.
2. Circulation of water.
3. Vegetation
4. Parent material
5. Temperature
6. Pressure
7. Topography
8. Time
9. Aspect
Weathehring rates are dependent on:
1. Parent material
2. Vegetation
3. Climate
4. Topography
5. Time
Product of granular disentigration
Grus
weathering of angular edges into rounded edges
Spheroidal weathering
bold, isolated outcrop that rises drastically from the ground and can be meters high
tors
weathering that looks like honeycomb on the side of the cliff, the cause is hydrolysis
cavernous weathering
weathered residue that becomes differentiated at depth into horizons
soil
layers of soil
O-> organic
A-> zone of leaching
B-> zone of accumulation
C-> no weathering
larger scale than tors, these are remnant rocks in hot/dry zones
inselburgs
broken up pieces of rock
regolith
ancient soil no longer going through soil forming processes
paleosol
landforms are interplay of what three things?
1. Driving forces
2. Resistive framework
3. Time
once stress is released, rock returns back to original shape/position
elastic deformation
rock remains deformed after stress is released
plastic deformation
behaves like a fluid
plastic
point at which a material no longer behaves elastically
elastic limit
amount of force required to cause failure
strength
amount of force required to break in direction of force
shear strength
amount of force required to break on a perpendiculat plane
tensile strength
amount of force require to crush a rock
compressive strength
mechanical resistance to relative motion of adjacent masses
friction
slow and steady continuous plastic deformation
crepe
Two types of friction:
1. Sliding friction
-well defined plane
-static
-dynamic
2. Interna friction
Effects of moisture:
cohesion
surface tension
fluid pressure
2 Ways to measure shear:
1. Direct shear test
2. Triaxle Test (accounts for confining pressure)
ratio of driving forces to resistive forces
Safety factor
Two main types of mass movements
1. Flow
2. Slip
Difference between flow and slip
Slip- well defined surface
Flow- no well defined surface
Naming mass movement depends on:
mechanism and material
slow, down-slope movement of saturated soil
solifluction
rapid downward sliding along a plane
landslide
rock breaks loose and falls through the air
rockfall
forward rotation of a block while it falls
toppling
curved surface from which mass movement moves away from
slump
unsorted incoherent mixture of Earth with water or ice that moves downslope rapidly
debris avalanche
narrow valley in side of mountain where debris avalanches are common
couloirs
rock fused together during debris avalanche
frictionite
slow downslope viscous flow of saturated, fine grained material
earthflow
not as fine grained as earth flow
debris flow
heterogenous mixture of rock and debris
mud flow
high speed debris avalanche that moves downslope
sturzstroms
black substance on geologic surface
desert varnish
Surface to clouds
evaporation
clouds to surface
precipitation
surface to subsurface
infiltration
surface to ocean
runoff
discharge
volume/time
intensity
amount of precipitation/unit time
how often an event of a certain magnitude reoccurs
Recurrence interval, #years in record/rank
lines connecting maximum maximum precipitation in a 24 hour period
isopluvial map
annual average precipitation
isohyet map
amount of precipitation preceding a rainfall event
antecedent precipitation
amount of precipitation that falls and never reaches the ground
interception
Types of interception
1. Transpiration
2. Throughfall
3. Stemflow
Infilltration depends on...
porosity
permeability
empty space within soil and rocks
porosity
ability of rocks and soil to transmit fluids
permeability
movement of water as a broad sheet
Horton overland flow
smallest (cm-in) unit which precipitation can form
rill
many rills gathered together
gulley
flow longer than just a couple of days, but not year round
euphermal
elevation between top and base of a stream
stage height
is when stream tops stream banks
flood stage
max flood stage during an event
crest
plot of discharge vs. time
hydrograph
Shallow water=
higher velocity
5 Ways a river carries material
1. Dissolution
2. Flotation
3. Ice
4. Suspension
5. Bedload
way of transport in which water dissolves minerals and transport them
dissolution
debris floats on the water due to surface tension
flotation
form of transportation which carries impurities
ice
velocity can keep objects from settling
suspension
anything that is being carried that is in contact with the bed of the river
bedload
type of bedload that bounces along bed
saltation
type of bedload in which transport material is always in contact with the bed
traction
Difference between valley and channel...
Channel is where the water is flowing at any given time and the valley is much larger
area between the channel and valley
floodplain
stream is straight with little, if any, variation
straight stream
stream has channels that bifrucate and merge back together, but are permanent
anastomosing
stream has channels that bifrucate and come back together, but they are not permanent
braided
stream with a sinuous path
meandering
whole scale movement of a meandering stream most commonly along deltas or oceans
avulsion
stream length/valley length
sinuosity
any stream that flows within the vally of a parallel stream
yazoo stream
elevated areas directly ouside the channel, but stil in the valley
levee
stream that has reached equilibrium between discharge load and slope
graded stream
more sediment than water, so net deposition
aggradation
more water than sediment, so net erosion
degradation
Type of degradation that cuts into bed
incision
rapid increase in velocity of water can cause bubbles, when bubbles pop they can create shockwaves that break rocks
cavitation
Order of Streams
1st- smallest
2nd- 2 1st
3rd- 2 2nd
4th- 2 3rd
Drainage density
length (sum)/area
river flows with the slope of the land
consequent stream
river has no preferred direction
insequent stream
selective headward erosion following courses along weakness
subsequent streams
originally consequent stream, but has been modified to flow in opposite direction
obsequent stream
once obsequent stream, now consequent stream again
resequent stream
Drainage pattern like branches
dendritic
parallel lined drainage pattern
trellis
parallel, but branching
rectangular
streams go away from a central point
radial
streams flow to a point
centripetal
leading edge of incision
knickpoint
one stream captures another
stream capture
drainage divide shifts so that one river's drainage captures another
Abstraction
tributary captures the original trunk
autocapture
old valley that is left high and dry due to stream capture
wind gap
one meandering river meanders into another
intercision
gently sloping, concave upward, graded surface of erosion that cuts across rocks of varying resistance with a thin veneer of alluvum
pediment