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115 Cards in this Set

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An element or compound that is normally crystalline and has formed as a result of geologic processes
Mineral
The atoms in a mineral are arranged in a regular repeating geometric pattern
Crystalline
A chemical substance composed of identical atoms that may not be separated by ordinary chemical means into different substances; made up of one type of atom that can't be broken down
Element
A substance that is made up of two or more elements; atoms are held together by atomic bonding
Compound
Sharing of electrons between atoms
Covalent bonding
Attraction of negatively and positively charged ions
Ionic bonding
Weak electrostatic forces of attraction between chains or sheets of ions
Van der Walls
The smallest unit of the geometric crystalline pattern
Unit cell
Composed of unit cells stacked together
Crystal
An aggregate of one or more minerals
Rock
~2.5
Finger nail
~3
Penny
~5.5
Knife blade
Softest mineral on Moh's scale of hardness
Talc
Hardest mineral on Moh's scale of hardness
Diamond
48wt% oxygen and 28wt% silica
Earth's crust
Oxygen and silica combine to form this
silicates
98wt% of Earth's crust
silicates
Silicon dioxide, H=7, color varies, used as gem stone
quartz
Aluminosilicates
feldspars
Silicon, oxygen, and aluminum are primary elements in combination with potassium, sodium, or calcium
aluminosilicates
Sodium or potassium
alkali feldspars
Sodium or calcium
Plagioclase
H=6, pink or gray, ceramics or glass industries, weather chemically to form clay minerals
Feldspars
Formed from sheets of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra
Mica
White mica
Muscovite
Dark, ferromagnesian mica
Biotite
Perfect basal cleavage, used as windows or oven doors
Mica
Silicon and oxygen combine with iron and/or magnesium
Ferromagnesian minerals
Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole
Ferromagnesian minerals
Dark in color, alter/weathered easily to form oxides such as limonite (rust)
Ferromagnesian minerals
Contain C03
Carbonates
Most environmentally important, major constituent of limestone and marble
Calcite
Weathers very easily, calcite, limestone, marble
Carbonates
Contain sulfur
Sulfides
Pyrite, can pose environmental problem
Sulfides,
Copper, Silver, Gold, Diamonds
Native elements
Economically important, profitable
Ore minerals
Cool slowly under Earth's surface; big crystals
Intrusive igneous rocks
Gabbro, Diorite, Granodiorite, Granite
Intrusive igneous rocks
Mafic (dark)
45-55wt% SiO2
Coarse grained
Gabbro
Composed of quartz, more orthoclase than plagioclase, less than 15% ferromagnesium minerals,light in color-white, tan, pink to red
Felsic
Composed of ferromagnesium minerals and plagioclase, no quartz or orthoclase, dark in color-dark gray to black
Mafic
No quartz, more plagioclase than orthoclase, 50% ferromagnesium minerals, light to medium gray to greenish-gray in color, "salt-n-pepper" appearance
Intermediate
More than 90% ferromagnesium minerals, dark in color-green to black
Ultramafic
Mafic-intermediate
55-63wt% SiO2
Coarse grained
Diorite
Intermediate
63-70wt% SiO2
Medium to light color
Coarse grained
Granodiorite
Silicious
>70wt% SiO2
Coarse grained
Light color
Granite
Big intrusions of magma
Batholith and pluton
Cross cut strata of other rocks; cut across existing rocks
Dikes
Runs parallel to existing rocks
Sills
Law of Crosscutting relationships
A rock is younger than any other rock that it cuts
Cool fast and fine-grained
Extrusive igneous rocks
Basalt, Andesite, Davite, Rhyolite
Extrusive igneous rocks
Mafic (dark)
35-55wt% SiO2
Fine grained
Basalt
Mafic
55-63wt% SiO2
Fine grained
Andesite
Intermediate
63-70wt% SiO2
Medium colored
Davite
Salicious/felsic
>70wt% SiO2
Light colored
Rhyolite
Silicious glassy rock with air bubbles where volatiles escaped
Pumice
Mafic, sometimes glassy rock, with air bubbles where volatiles escaped
Scoria
Crystals that are larger than those in the groundmass (matrix in the rock)
Phenocrysts
A rock with phenocrysts
Porphyry
Flow deposits and fall deposits
Pyroclastic rocks
A cooling process; when lava cools it shrinks and cracks in such a way as to relieve the most pressure
Jointing
Angular fragments of broken lava and other material that can be found in every kind of rock
Breccia
Covers 75% of all exposed rocks
Sedimentary rocks
3 types of sedimentary environments
Terrestrial, marine, transitional
Rivers, alluvial fans, lakes, deserts
Terrestrial
Continental shelf, reefs
Marine
Beaches, deltas, lagoons, estuaries
Transitional
2 types of sedimentary rocks
Detrital and Chemical
Detrital also means what
Clastic
Clastic is another word for
Detrital
Clasts/grains, matrix, cement holds it together
Detrital/Clastic
Finer material that fills up the gaps in Detrital Sedimentary rocks
matrix
1/256 mm grain size
Claystone or shale
1/16-2mm grain size
Quartz sandstone
bigger than 2mm grain size
Gravel
Chemical is another word for
Nonclastic
Nonclastic is another word for
chemical
Carbonates (made up of CaCO3), evaporates, siliceous (made up of SiO2)
Chemical/nonclastic
Siliceous means
made up of SiO2
Claystone/shale, Quartz sandstone, Gravel
Detrital/clastic Sedimentary rocks
Halite, Gypsum, Limestone
Chemical/nonclastic sedimentary rocks
3 types of metamorphism (MM)
Dynamic/syntectonic, Contact, Regional
High pressure, low temperature
Dynamic/syntectonic MM

ex. tectonic event, meteor impact
Low pressure, high temperature
Contact MM

ex. magma intruded into other rocks
High pressure, high temperature
Regional MM

ex. Appalachians, really big crystals
burial MM in sedimentary basins, >500 degrees C, 15-20 km depth
Diagenesis
What are metamorphic rocks dependent on
degree of temperature and pressure
Minerals which only occur at certain T and P conditions
Index minerals
2 textures of metamorphic rocks
Foliated and nonfoliated
Parallel lines that cut original bedding; schistosity (segregration of minerals into light and dark bands), gneiss (coarsest foliation)
Foliated
Quartzites (predominately quartz, little texture), marble
Nonfoliated
highly MM, equate grains
Granulites
weakly MM sedimentary rocks, conchoidal fracture
Argillites
Low temperature of basalt or other mafic igneous rocks
Greenstone
Large crystals surrounded by fine grained matrix
Porphyroblast or metacrysts
Deformational textures
Friction breccia
Severe metamorphism
Chevron folds
Weathering creates this rock
Sedimentary
Heat creates this rock
Igneous
Heat, pressure, and fluid create this rock
Metamorphic
World wide recycling of rocks and minerals linking a subsurface process driven by Earth's internal heat, which melts or changes rocks in the tectonic cycle to surface processes driven by solar energy
Rock Cycle
Undergo diageneis and lithification
Sedimentary rocks
The chemistry of magma changes, in time, due to crystallization, assimiliation, and partial melting
Magmatic differentiation
Law of Original Horizontality
all sediments were originally deposited in horizontal layers
Law of Superposition
If sedimentary beds have not been overturned, then the youngest beds are on top
Layers which denote the top and bottom of different sedimentary layers
Bedding planes
Lateral change in sediment (in the same unit)
Facies change
Grains are deposited on the lee side of the dune
Cross bedding
Horizontally parallel rocks are deposited on tilted and eroded layers
Angular unconformity
Represents a period of erosion or non-deposition
Disconformity
Layers of different types of rock
Nonconformity
Results in changes in mineral composition and texture
Metamorphism