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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Represent variations in the elevation of the Earth's surface through the use of contour line. 3-D surface projected onto 2-D page.
Topographic maps
East-west lines that are constant distance from the equator and from each other. Specified in degrees north or south of the equator.
Lines running north-south that converge at the poles and are perpendicular to the equator. Specified in degrees eat of west of the prime meridian that passes through Greenwich, England.
The surface distance between longitue lines is ____at the equator and _____to zero at the poles.
greatest, decreases
Feet in a mile.
Known as quadrangles. Come in various scales.
USGS Topographic Maps
The large scale 7 1/2 minute series quadrangles cover ___ degree in each direction.
NJ divided into ___ quadrangles in the 7.5 minute series.
Each quadrangle names after ______.
a prominent town or feature on the map
Distance on the map relative to distnace on the earth
1 inch equals 1 mile on earth's surface
Verbal Scale
1/63360. 1 inch on the map equals 63360 inches, or 1 mile, on the earth's surface.
Fractional Scale
1:63360. where 1 inch on the map equals 63360 inches, or 1 mile, on the earth's surface. AKA Representative Scale
Proportional Scale
Where 1 inch on the map equals 1 mile on the earth's surface.
Graphic Scale
Lines which connect all points of equal elevation on th earth's surface. Take earth's 3D topography and convert them into 2D maps.
Contour Lines
6 Contour Line Rules
1. Constant spacing between Contour Lines
2. Every 5th line darkened
3. Closed contour lines represent knobs or hills.
4. Hatchure contour lines represent depressions.
5. Contour spacing reflects gradient.
6. Rule of Vs
Constant spacing of contour lines
Contour Intervals
Most common contour interval
20 feet
Tightly spaced contours represent ____
Steep gradients
Widely spaced contours represent ____
Gradual slopes
When contour lines cross streams they form a ___
V points ____
3 Rules of Vs
1. streams erode their bedrock
2. always flow down gradient.
3. directly across a stream, you must go upstream to find a point of equal elevation. This creates the V.
2D topographic map can be turned into a profile of the earth in cross section. As if you were to walk along the earth's surface.
Cross Sectional Profile
Record of the exact elevation at a particular elevation. Typically a brass circular plate permanently embedded in a rock.
Bench Marks
United States Geologic Survey
Symbols on Topographic Maps
roadways, bridges, quarries, rivers, etc given a symbol
Change in elevation between two points divided by the distance between the two points. (rise/run)
Gradient (Slope)
Water will accumulate in areas with ___ gradient. May cause swamp.
Ratio between the vertical scale on a cross sectional profile and the horizontal scale on the map.
Vertical Exaggeration
Vertical scale larger _____
Elongates a cross sectional profile in the vertical direction.
Horizontal scale larger ____
elongate a cross sectional profile in the horizontal direction
The angle a compass needle makes with the magnetic axis of the earth. Equator=0 Poles= 90 Allows you to approximate latitude
Magnetic Declination
Uses and Importance of Topographic Maps
1. How to buy a house.
2. Surveying, land and roadway development
3. Fishing, hunting, hiking
How to Buy a House details
1. poor contour spacing: poor drainage
2. nearby rivers: flood plains, cut banks
3. railroads, hiking trails, roadways
4. quarries
5 state parks, wildlife refuges, etc
1 degree=
60 minutes
1 minute
60 seconds
.5 degrees
30 minutes
Not rectangle, not square. Lines of latitude curve towards the poles creating a four sided geometic figure.
Measured distance vertically above sea level