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34 Cards in this Set

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Rock has 2 different sizes of minerals. Cools slow then fast
Types of Mechanical Weathering
Frost Wedging
Pressure Release (unloading)
Biological Activity
Sediment that falls from a mountain. Example: Rock fall. Frost Wedging is the most common cause.
Cliff- Caprock, Balcones
Igneous (fire)
Rocks formed after lava or magma has cooled.

Example: Granite; Basalt
Soil consists of:
45% Mineral Particles
5% Organic Matter
50% Pore Space (air)
Weathering Rates Increase with:
1. Water- brings chemicals into contact
2. Surface area- allows more chemicals to react
Varieties of Basalt
1. Basalt- no holes
2. Vesicular Basalt- some holes
3. Scoria(ceous)- all holes
Pressure Release (unloading)
expansion of rock due to removal of overburden, causing exfoliation domes. - Enchanted Rock, Stone Mt., GA. Independance Way, Wy, and Mt. Dun, Nz
Laterite "brick"
Very Rich in Al.
Develops in very wet climate
very poor soil due to leaching
Biological Activity
Mechanical Weathering caused by Plants/Animals
Typical Soil Profile
O Horizon- Top Soil/Grass
A Horizon- Sandy due to Leaching (zone of leaching)
B Horizon- Clay due to deposition (zone of deposition
C Horizon- weathered bedrock (spherodial weathering)
D Horizon- Solid/unaltered berock
separates the Edwards Plateau and the Blacklands prarie region- caused by faulting
Rich in Calcium
Develops in Dry Climate
Very rich soil due to lack of leaching
Western U.S.
Separates high plains from low plains- caused by erosion
3 Kinds of Mass Wasting
1. Falls
2. Slumps
3. Flows
Decayed Organic Matter
Frost Wedging
When water seeps into cracks and freezes by 9%
Pile of rocks at the base of a cliff
Types of Rocks
Factors Affecting Soil Formation
Parent Rock
Organic Activity
Slope (Topography)
Bowens Weathering Series
Same as Reaction series; simply remember that those at the top weather faster than those at the bottom.
Processes which lower the land
1. Weathering (decomposition of Rock)
2. Erosion (removal of weathered rock)
3. mass wasting (mass transport of material downhill)
1. Chemical - rock chemically changes
2. Mechancial- rock physically changes
Sedminentary (to settle)
forms when sediment is litihfied
ex: Shale, limestone, sandstone
Metamorphic (change)
form where heat and pressure alters any rock
ex: Marble; slate
Distribution of Igneous Rocks
Granite and Rhyolite- Continents
Andesite and Diorite- where continent meets sea floor (if plate boundry)
Gabbro and Basalt- sea floor (sometimes on continent)
How are igneous rocks classified?
1. Composition (what minerals are found in the rock)
2. Texture:
a) Coarse (slow)
b) Fine (fast)
c) Glassy (very fast)
Acid Rain Destorys
Rich in Al and Fe
Develops in wet climates
poor soil due to leaching
ex: Eastern U.S.
Humans make acid rain by
1. Burning Anything (Co2 and rain)
2. Burning Coal- Sulfuric Acid
3. Burning Gas- Nitric Acid
sediment that slides- movement of soil in blocks along curved path

rock slide- sliding of rock along flat surfaces
sediment that flows.

ex: creep- slowest flow
earth flow- thick mixture of sediment and water
Mudflow- fluid mixture of sediment and water (fastest)
The chemical weathering of orthoclase
Orthoclase --- Kaolinite